Edward H. Nabb Research Center for Delmarva History and Culture
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Nabb Research Center General Resources - Finding Aids

Also see: VA Primary Sources | Annotated Bibliography | MD Secondary Sources

* Virginia - Secondary Sources


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African American

Ballagh, James Curtis. A History of Slavery in Virginia. Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins Press, 1902.

Berlin, Ira. Many Thousands Gone: The First Two Centuries of Slavery in North America. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1998.

Berlin, Ira. "Time Space and the Evolution of Afro-American Society in the British Mainland North America." American Historical Review 85(1980): 44-78.

Breen, T. H. and Stephen Innes. Myne Owne Ground: Race and Freedom on Virginia's Eastern Shore, 1640-1676. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 1980.

Craven, Wesley F. White, Red, and Black: The Seventeenth-Century Virginian. Charlottesville, VA: University Press of Virginia, 1971.

Curtin, Philip D., ed. Africa Remembered: Narratives by West Africans from the Era of the Slave Trade. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press, 1967.

Deal, Joseph Douglas. "A Constricted World: Free Blacks on Virginia's Eastern Shore, 1680-1750." In Colonial Chesapeake Society, Carr, et. al. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1988.

Deal, Joseph Douglas III. "Race and Class in Colonial Virginia: Indians, Englishmen, and Africans on the Eastern Shore During the Seventeenth Century." Ph.D. diss., University of Rochester, 1981.

Dunn, Richard S. "Black Society in the Chesapeake, 1776–1810." In Slavery and Freedom in the Age of the American Revolution. Ira Berlin and Ronald Hoffman, eds.Charlottesville, VA: University Press of Virginia, 1983.

Ferguson, Leland. Uncommon Ground: Archaeology and Early African America, 1650-1800. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1992.

Frey, Sylvia R. Water from the Rock: Black Resistance in a Revolutionary Age. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1991.

Frey, Sylvia R., and Betty Wood. Come Shouting to Zion: African-American Protestantism in the American South and British Caribbean to 1830. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1998.

Gomez, Michael A. Exchanging Our Country Marks: The Transformation of African Identities in the Colonial and Antebellum South. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1998.

Gundersen, Joan Rezner. "The Double Bonds of Race and Sex: Black and White Women in a Colonial Virginia Parish." Journal of Southern History LII (1986): 51–372.

Gutman, Herbert G. The Black Family in Slavery and Freedom, 1750-1925. New York, NY: Pantheon Books, 1976.

Holton, Woody. Forced Founders: Indians, Debtors, Slaves, and the Making of the American Revolution in Virginia. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1999.

Isaac, Rhys. Landon Carter's Uneasy Kingdom: Revolution and Rebellion on a Virginia Plantation. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2004.

Jordan, Winthrop D. White Over Black: American Attitudes Toward the Negro, 1550–1812. Chapel Hill, N.C.: University of North Carolina Press, 1968.

Kulikoff, Allan. "The Origins of Afro-American Society in Tidewater Maryland and Virginia, 1700-1790." William and Mary Quarterly 35 (1978): 226-259.

Kulikoff, Allan. "A Prolific People: Black Population Growth in the Chesapeake Colonies, 1700-1790." Southern Studies 16 (1977): 391-428.

Kulikoff, Allan. Tobacco and Slaves: The Development of Southern Culture in the Chesapeake, 1680-1800. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1986.

Lee, Jean B. "The Problem of Slave Community in the Eighteenth-Century Chesapeake." William and Mary Quarterly 43 (1986): 333-361.

Morgan, Edmund S. American Slavery, American Freedom: The Ordeal of Colonial Virginia. New York, NY: W.W. Norton, 1975.

Morgan, Philip D. Slave Counterpoint: Black Culture in the Eighteenth-Century Chesapeake and Lowcountry. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1998.

Palmer, Paul C. "Servant into Slave: The Evolution of the Legal Status of the Negro Laborer in Colonial Virginia." South Atlantic Quarterly LXV (1966), 355-370.

Parent, Anthony S. Foul Means: The Formation of a Slave Society in Virginia, 1660-1740. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2003.

Raboteau, Albert J. Slave Religion: "The Invisible Institution" in the Antebellum South. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 1978.

Schwarz, Philip J. Slave Laws In Virginia. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 1996.

Schwarz, Philip J. Twice Condemned: Slaves and the Criminal Laws of Virginia, 1705–1865. Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State University Press, 1988.

Shammas, Carole. "Black Women's Work and the Evolution of Plantation Society in Virginia." Labor History, XXVI (1985): 5–28.

Singleton, Theresa A. "The Archaeology of Slave Life." In Before Freedom Came: African-American Life in the Antebellum South. Edward D. C. Campbell, Jr., ed. Published for the Museum of the Confederacy, Charlottesville, VA: University Press of Virginia, 1991.

Sobel, Mechal. The World They Made Together: Black and White Values in Eighteenth-Century Virginia. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1987.

Thornton, John. Africa and Africans in the Making of the Atlantic World, 1400–1680. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press, 1992.

Upton, Dell. "White and Black Landscapes in Eigh-teenth-Century Virginia." In Material Life in America, 1600-1860, Robert St. George, ed. Boston, MA: Northeastern University Press, 1988.

Vaughan, Alden T. "The Origins Debate: Slavery and Racism in Seventeenth-Century Virginia." Virginia Magazine of History and Biography, XCVII (1989): 311–354.

Walsh, Lorena S. "Fettered Consumers: Slaves and the Anglo-American 'Consumer Revolution.'" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Economic History Association, 1992, copy, John D. Rockefeller Jr. Library, Colonial Williamsburg Foundation.

Walsh, Lorena S. "Slave Life, Slave Society, and Tobacco Production in the Tidewater Chesapeake." In Cultivation and Culture: Labor and the Shaping of Slave Life in the Americas. Ira Berlin and Philip D. Morgan, eds. Charlottesville, VA: University Press of Virginia, 1993.

Yentsch, Anne Elizabeth. A Chesapeake Family and Their Slaves: A Study in Historical Archaeology. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press, 1994.


Archaeology

Deetz, James. Flowerdew Hundred: the Archaeology of a Virginia Plantation, 1619-1864. Charlottesville, VA: University Press of Virginia, 1993.

Deetz, James. In Small Things Forgotten: The Archaeology of Early American Life. Garden City, New York, NY: Doubleday, 1977.


Architecture and Historic Preservation

Beirne, Rosamond and John Scarff. William Buckland: Architect of Virginia and Maryland. Baltimore, MD: Gunston Hall, Hammond-Harwood House, 1958.

Bourne, Michael, Orlando Ridout V, Paul Touart, and Donna Ware. Architecture and Change in the Chesapeake, A Field Tour. Annapolis, MD: VAF/MHT, 1998.

Brown, Bennie. "The Ownership of Architectural Books in Colonial Virginia." In American Architects and their Books to 1848, Kenneth Hafertepe and James F. O'Gorman, eds. Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Press, 2001.

Brownell, Charles, Calder Loth, William Rasmussen, and Richard Wilson. The Making of Virginia Architecture. Richmond, VA: Virginia Museum of Fine Arts, 1992.

Buchanan, Paul. "The Eighteenth-Century Frame House of Tidewater Virginia." In Building Early America, Charles Peterson, ed. Radnor, PA: Chilton Book Company, 1976.

Chappell, Edward. "Housing a Nation: The Transformation of Living Standards in Early America." In Of Consuming Interests: The Style of Life in the Eighteenth Century. Cary Carson, et al., eds. Charlottesville, VA: University Press of Virginia, 1994.

Chappell, Edward and Julie Richter. "Wealth and Houses in Post-Revolutionary Virginia." In Exploring Everyday Landscapes: Perspectives in Vernacular Architecture VII, Annmarie Adams and Sally McMurry, eds. Knoxville, TN: The University of Tennessee Press, 1997.

Clairborne, Herbert. Comments on Virginia Brick­work before 1800. Boston, MA: The Walpole Society, 1957.

Ellis, Clifton. "Dissenting Faith and Domestic Landscape in Eighteenth-Century Virginia." In Exploring Everyday Landscapes: Perspectives in Vernacular Architecture VII, Annmarie Adams and Sally McMurry, eds. Knoxville, TN: The University of Tennessee Press, 1997.

Forman, Henry Chandlee. Virginia Architecture in the 17th Century. Williamsburg, VA: Virginia 350th Anniversary Celebration Corporation, 1957.

Glassie, Henry. Folk Housing in Middle Virginia. Knoxville, TN: University of Tennessee Press, 1975.

Green, Bryan C., Calder Loth, and William Rasmussen. Lost Virginia: Vanished Architecture of the Old Dominion. Charlottesville, VA: Howell Press, 2001.

Green, Bryan C. "The Structure of Civic Exchange: Market Houses in Early Virginia." In Shaping Communities: Perspectives in Vernacular Architecture, Carter Hudgins and Elizabeth Cromley, eds. Knoxville, TN: University of Tennessee Press, 1997.

Heck, Marlene. "Building Status: Pavilioned Dwellings in Virginia." In Shaping Communities: Perspectives in Vernacular Architecture, Carter Hudgins and Elizabeth Cromley, eds. Knoxville, TN: University of Tennessee Press, 1997.

Herman, Bernard. "Slave Quarters in Virginia: The Personal Behind Historic Artifacts." In The Scope of Historical Archaeology, David G. Orr and Daniel G. Crozier, eds. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press, 1984.

Hudgins, Carter. "Robert 'King' Carter and the Landscape of Tidewater Virginia in the Eighteenth Century." In Earth Patterns: Essays in Landscape Archaeology, William Kelso and Rachel Most, eds. Charlottesville, VA: University Press of Virginia, 1990.

Keene, John T. "The Nail Making Industry in Early Virginia." Chronicles of Early American Industries Association 25 (1972): 1-9.

Kimball, Fiske. Domestic Architecture of the American Colonies and the Early Republic. New York, NY: Dover, 1966.

Lancaster, Robert. Historic Virginia Homes and Churches. Philadelphia, PA: J.B. Lippincott, 1915.

Lane, Mills. Architecture of the Old South: Virginia. Savannah, GA: Beehive Press, 1987.

Lindgren, James R. Preserving the Old Dominion: Historic Preservation and Virginia Traditionalism. Charlottesville, VA: University Press of Virginia, 1993.

Linebaugh, Donald. "'All the Annoyances and Inconveniencies of the Country': Environmental Factors in the Development of Outbuildings in the Colonial Chesapeake." Winterthur Portfolio 29 (1994): 1-18.

Loth, Calder. "Notes on the Evolution of Virginia Brickwork from the Seventeenth Century to the Late Nineteenth Century." Association for Preservation Technology 6 (1972): 82-120.

Lounsbury, Carl. An Illustrated Glossary of Early Southern Architecture and Landscape. Reprint. Charlottesville, VA: The University Press of Virginia, 1999.

Lounsbury, Carl. "The Structure of Justice: The Courthouses of Colonial Virginia." In Perspectives in Vernacular Architecture, Thomas Carter and Bernard Herman, eds. Columbia, MO: University of Missouri Press, 1989.

Lounsbury, Carl. "Take a Seat, but not just any Seat: The Accommodation of Slaves in Early Virginia Churches." The Interpreter 12 (1991): 4-5, 10.

Martin, Ann Smart. "Commercial Space as Consumption Arena: Retail Stores in Early Virginia." In People, Power, Places: Perspectives in Vernacular Architecture, Sally McMurry and Annmarie Adams, eds. Knoxville, TN: University of Tennessee Press, 2000.

Marzio, Peter. "Carpentry in the Southern Colonies during the Eighteenth Century with Emphasis on Maryland and Virginia." Winterthur Portfolio 7 (1972): 229-250.

Meade, William. Old Churches, Ministers, and Families of Virginia. 2 vols. Reprint. Baltimore, MD: Genealogical Pub. Co., 1966.

Mooney, Barbara. "'True Worth is Highly Shown in Living Well': Architectural Patronage in Eighteenth-Century Virginia." Ph.D. diss., University of Illinois at Urbanna-Champaign, 1991.

Morrison, Hugh. Early American Architecture: From The First Colonial Settlement to the national Period. New York: Oxford University Press, 1952.

Neiman, Fraser. "Domestic Architecture at the Clifts Plantation: The Social Context of Early Virginia Building." Northern Neck of Virginia Historical Magazine 28 (December 1978): 3096-3128.

Neiman, Fraser. "Temporal Patterning in House Plans from the 17th-Century Chesapeake." In The Archaeology of 17th-Century Virginia, Theodore Reinhart and Dennis Pogue, eds. Richmond, VA: The Dietz Press, 1993.

Peters, John O. and Margaret T. Virginia's Historic Courthouses. Charlottesville, VA: University Press of Virginia, 1995.

Reps, John. Tidewater Towns: City Planning in Colonial Virginia and Maryland. Williamsburg, VA: The Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, 1972.

Sarudy, Barbara. Gardens and Gardening in the Chesapeake, 1700-1805. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins Press, 1998.

Shurtleff, Harold R. The Log Cabin Myth: A Study of the Early Dwellings of the English Colonists in North America. Reprint of the original edition edited with an introduction by Samuel Eliot Morison. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1939.

Upton, Dell. "Board Roofing in Tidewater Virginia." Association for Preservation Technology Bulletin 12 (1976): 22-43.

Upton, Dell. "Early Vernacular Architecture in South­eastern Virginia." Ph.D. diss., Brown University, 1980.

Upton, Dell. Holy Things and Profane: Anglican Parish Churches in Colonial Virginia. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1997.

Upton, Dell. "The Origins of Chesapeake Architecture." In Three Centuries of Maryland Architecture. Annapolis, MD: Maryland Historical Trust, 1982.

Upton, Dell. "Vernacular Domestic Architecture in Eighteenth-Century Virginia." Winterthur Portfolio 17 (1982): 95-119.

Waterman, Thomas and John A. Barrow. Domestic Colonial Architecture of Tidewater Virginia. New York, NY: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1932.

Waterman, Thomas. The Mansions of Virginia, 1706­1776. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1945.

Wells, Camille. "The Planters Prospect: Houses, Outbuildings, and Rural Landscapes in Eighteenth-Century Virginia." Winterthur Portfolio 28 (1993), 1-31.

Wells, John and Robert Dalton. The Virginia Architects, 1835-1955. Richmond, VA: New South Architectural Press, 1997.

Wenger, Mark R. "The Central Passage in Virginia: Evolution of an Eighteenth-Century Living Space." In Perspectives in Vernacular Architecture, Camille Wells, ed. Columbia, MO: University of Missouri Press, 1986.

Wenger, Mark R. "The Dining Room in Early Virginia." In Perspectives in Vernacular Architecture, Thomas Carter and Bernard Herman, eds. Columbia, MO: University of Missouri Press, 1989, 149-159.


Biography, Letters, Reminiscences

Carey, George Gibson. "'And Everyone of Them's Gone But Me': Another Look at Tangier Island's Oldest Inhabitant." Studies in Literary Imagination III (1970): 73-87.


County and Local History

Brown, Alexander. The First Republic in America. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin and Company, 1898.

Brown, Alexander. The Genesis of the United States. 2 vols. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin and Company, 1890.

Bruce, P.A. The Economic History of Virginia in the Seventeenth Century. 2 vols. London: Macmillan & Co. 1896.

Bruce, P.A. Institutional History of Virginia in the Seventeenth Century. 2 vols. New York, NY: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1910.

Bruce, P.A. Social Life in Virginia in the Seventeenth Century: An Inquiry into the Origin of the Higher Planting Class. Together with an Account of the Habits, Customs, and Diversions of the People. Richmond, VA: Whittet & Shepperson, 1907.

Clark, Charles B. Eastern Shore of Maryland and Virginia. 3 vols. New York, NY: Lewis Historical Publishing Co., 1950.

Craven, W.F. Dissolution of the Virginia Company: The Failure of a Colonial Experiment. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 1932.

Craven, W.F. The Southern Colonies in the Seventeenth Century, 1607-1689. Baton Rouge, LA: LSU Press, 1949.

Craven, W.F. White. Red. and black: The Seventeenth Century Virginian. Charlottesville, VA: University of Virginia Press, 1971.

Fiske, John. Old Virginia and Her Neighbors. New York, NY: Houghton, Mifflin and Co., 1897.

Herndon, Melvin. Tobacco in Colonial Virginia: The Sovereign Remedy. Williamsburg, VA: Virginia 350th Anniversary Celebration Corporation, 1957.

Isaac, Rhys. The Transformation of Virginia, 1740­1790. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1982.

Johnson, Leonard. Ebb and Flow: A History of the Virginia Tip of the Delmarva Peninsula, 1561-1892. 1992.

Rutman, Darrett B. and Anita H. Rutman. A Place in Time: Middlesex County, Virginia 1650-1750. New York, NY: Norton Press, 1982.

Smith, James Morton, ed. Seventeenth Century America: Essays in Colonial History. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1959.

Tawes, William I. God, Man, Saltwater and the Eastern Shore. Cambridge, MD: Tidewater Publishing, 1967.

Turman, Nora N. The Eastern Shore of Virginia, 1603-1964. Onancock, Va.: Eastern Shore News, 1964.

Whitelaw, Ralph T. Virginia's Eastern Shore: A History of Northampton and Accomack Counties. 2 vols. 1951.

Willis, Bob. "On the Eastern Shore, Time Stands Still." The Philadelphia Sunday Bulletin, August 22, 1976.

Wise, Jennings Cropper. Ye Kingdome of Accawmacke or the Eastern Shore of Virginia in the Seventeenth Century. Baltimore, MD: Genealogical Press, Inc., 1911.

Wycherly, H. Alan. "H.L. Mencken vs. the Eastern Shore: December 1931." Bulletin of the New York Public Library 74 (1970): 381-390.


Economic, Business, and Labor

Ames, Susie M. "The Reunion of two Virginia Counties," Journal of Southern History, VIII (1942), 536-548.

Ballagh, James Curtis. A History of Slavery in Virginia. Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins Press, 1902.

Blanton, Wyndliam B. "Epidemics, Real and Imaginary, and Other Factors Influencing Seventeenth Century Virginia's Population." Bulletin of the History of Medicine, XXXI (1957), 454-462.

Bergstrom, Peter. Markets and Merchants: Economic Diversification in Colonial Virginia, 1700-1775. Ph.D. diss., University of New Hampshire, 1980.

Breen, T.H. "An Empire of Goods: The Anglicization of Colonial America, 1690–1776." Journal of British Studies 25 (1986): 467–499.

Breen, T.H. The Marketplace of Revolution: How Consumer Politics Shaped American Independence. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2004.

Breen, T.H. "Narrative of Commercial Life: Consumption, Ideology, and Community on the Eve of the American Revolution." William and Mary Quarterly 50 (1993): 471–501.

Bridenbaugh, Carl. Myths and Realities: Societies of the Colonial South. New York, NY: Atheneum, 1963.

Handlin, Oscar and Mary. "Origins of the Southern Labor System," William and Mary Quarterly 7 (1950): 199-222.

Horn, James. "Servant Emigration to the Chesapeake in the Seventeenth Century." In The Chesapeake in the Seventeenth Century: Essays on Anglo-American Society, Tate, Thad W. and David L. Ammerman, eds. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1979.

Horn, James. "Economic Behavior in a Planting Society: The Eighteenth Century Chesapeake." Journal of Southern History, 33 (1967): 669-485.

Innes, Stephen, ed. Work and Labor in Early America. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1988.

Jernegan, Marcus. Laboring and Dependent Classes in Colonial America. Chicago, IL: Univ. of Chicago Press. 1931.

Kulikoff, Allan. "The Economic Growth of the Eighteenth Century Chesapeake in the Eighteenth Century." Journal of Economic History 39 (1979): 275-288.

Land, Aubrey. "Economic Base and Social Structure: The Northern Chesapeake in the Eighteenth Century," Journal of Economic History 25 (1965): 639-654.

Land, Aubrey. "Economic Behavior in a Planting Society: The Eighteenth Century Chesapeake," Journal of Southern History, 33 (1967): 469-485.

Menard, Russel. "From Servants to Slaves: The Transformation of the Chesapeake Labor System, 1680-1710." Southern Studies 16 (1977): 55-390.

Menard, Russel. "A Small Planter's Profits: The Cole Estate and the Growth of the Early Chesapeake Colonies." William and Mary Quarterly 40 (1983): 171-196.

Morgan, Edmund S. "Headrights and Head Counts." The Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 80 (1972): 361-371.

Price, Jacob. France and the Chesapeake: A History of the French Tobacco Monopoly, 1674-1791, and of Its Relationship to the British and American Tobacco Trades. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 1973.

Price, Jacob. Capital and Credit in British Overseas Trade: The View from the Chesapeake, 1700-1776. Cambridge, MA: Marvard University Press, 1980.

Ragsdale, Bruce A. A Planters' Republic: The Search for Economic Independence in Revolutionary Virginia. Madison, WI: Madison House, 1996.

Shammas, Carole. The Pre-Industrial Consumer in England and America. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1990.

Smith, Abbott. Colonists in Bondage: White Servitude and Convict Labor in America, 1607-1776. Chapel Hill, NC.: University of North Carolina, 1947.


Geography, Agriculture

Upton, Dell. "New Views of the Virginia Landscape." The Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 96 (1988): 403-470.


Genealogy

Dorman, John Frederick. The Virginia Genealogist. 1957.


Literature, Folklore




Maritime, Military




Native Americans

Axtell, James. The Invasion Within: The Contest of Cultures in Colonial North America. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 1985.

Axtell, James. "The Rise and Fall of the Powhatan Empire". In After Columbus: Essays in the Ethnohistory of Colonial North America, James Axtell, ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 1988.

Craven, Wesley F. "Indian Policy in Early Virginia," William and Mary Quarterly 1 (1974): 65-82.

Craven, Wesley F. White, Red, and Black: The Seventeenth-Century Virginian. Charlottesville, VA: University Press of Virginia, 1971.

Deal, Joseph Douglas III. "Race and Class in Colonial Virginia: Indians, Englishmen, and Africans on the Eastern Shore During the Seventeenth Century." Ph.D. diss., University of Rochester, 1981.

Egloff, Keith, and Deborah Woodward. First People: The Early Indians of Virginia. Charlottesville, VA: University Press of Virginia, 1994.

Jennings, Francis. The Invasion of America: Indians, Colonialism, and the Cant of Conquest. New York, NY: Norton, 1976.

Kupperman, Karen O. Settling with the Indians: The Meeting of English and Indian Cultures in America, 1580-1640. Totowa, NJ: Rowman and Littlefield, 1980.

Merritt, Jane T. At the Crossroad: Indians and Empire on a Mid-Atlantic Frontier, 1700-1763. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2003.

Nash, Gary B. "The Image of Indians in the Southern Colonial Mind." William and Mary Quarterly 2 (1972): 197-230.

Pargellis, Stanley. "An Account of Indians in Virginia," William and Mary Quarterly 16 (1959): 230-243.

Richter, Daniel K. Facing East from Indian Country: A Native History of Early America. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2001.

Robinson, W. Stitt. "Indian Education and Missions in Colonial Virginia." Journal of Southern History, XVIII (1952): 152-168.

Robinson, W. Stitt. "The Legal Status of the Indian in Colonial Virginia." Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 61 (1953): 247-259.

Rountree, Helen C. and Thomas E. Davidson. Eastern Shore Indians of Virginia and Maryland. Charlottesville, VA: University Press of Virginia, 1997.

Rountree, Helen C. Powhatan Indians of Virginia: Their Traditional Culture. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1989.

Rountree, Helen C. "Sex Roles and Family Life." In Powhatan Indians of Virginia: Their Traditional Culture, Helen C. Rountree. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1989.

Sams, Conway Whittle. The Conquest of Virginia, the Forest Primeval. New York, NY: Knickerbocker Press, 1916.

Sheehan, Bernard. Savagism and Civility: Indians and Englishmen in Colonial Virginia. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1980.

Speck, Frank G. "Seventeenth Century Virginia Algonquian Population Estimates." Archaeological Society of Virginia, Quarterly Bulletin XXVIII (1975): 150-159.

Trigger, Bruce. "Early Native North American Responses to European Contact: Romantic versus Rationalistic Interpretations." Journal of American History 77 (1991): 1195-1215.

Vaughan, Alden T. "Expulsion of the Savages" English Policy and the Virginia massacre of 1622." William and Mary Quarterly 35 (1978): 57-84.

Weslager, Clinton Alfred. Indians of the Eastern Shore of Maryland and Virginia. New York, NY: Lewis Historical Publishing Co., 1950.


Politics, Law, Government

Curtis, George B. "The Colonial County Court, Social Forum and Legislative Precedent: Accomack County, Va., 1633-1639." Virginia Magazine of History and Biography LXXXV (1977): 274-288.


Religion

Berkus, Catherine. Strangers and Pilgrims: Female Preaching in America, 1740-1845. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1998.

Bond, Edward L. "Anglican Theology and Devotion in James Blair’s Virginia, 1685-1743." The Virginia Magazine of History and Biography CIV (1996): 313-340.

Bond, Edward L. Damned Souls in a Tobacco Colony: Religion in Seventeenth-Century Virginia. Macon, GA: Mercer University Press, 2000.

Bond, Edward L. "Source of Knowledge, Source of Power: The Supernatural World of English Virginia, 1607–1624." Virginia Magazine of History and Biography CVII (2000): 105–138.

Bond, Edward L. Spreading the Gospel in Colonial Virginia: Sermons and Devotional Writings. Williamsburg, VA: Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, 2004.

Bonomi, Patricia. Under the Cope of Heaven: Religion. Society. and Politics in Colonial America. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 1986.

Bridenbaugh, Carl. Mitre and Sceptre: Transatlantic faiths, ideas, personalities, and politics, 1689-1775. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 1967.

Brydon, George. Virginia’s Mother Church and the Political Conditions under which It Grew. 2 vols. Richmond, VA: Virginia Historical Society, 1947.

Buckley, Thomas E., S. J. Church and State in Revolutionary Virginia, 1776-1787. Charlottesville, VA: University Press of Virginia, 1977.

Bullock, Steven C. Revolutionary Brotherhood: Freemasonry and the Transformation of the American Social Order, 1730-1840. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1996.

Butler, Jon. Awash in a Sea of Faith: Christianizing the American People. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1990.

Butterfield, Kevin. "Puritans and Religious Strife in the Early Chesapeake." Virginia Magazine of History and Biography CIX (2001): 5-36.

Carroll, Kenneth L. Quakerism on the Eastern Shore. Baltimore, MD: Maryland Historical Society, 1970.

Cross, Arthur. The Anglican Episcopate and the American Colonies. New York, NY: Longmans, 1902

Earl, Riggins Renal. Dark Symbols, Obscure Signs: God, Self, and Community in the Slave Mind. Knoxville, TN: University of Tennessee Press, 2003.

Fall, Ralph E. The Diary of Robert Rose: A View of Virginia by a Scottish Colonial Parson, 1746-1751. Verona, VA: McClure Press, 1977.

Frey, Sylvia R. and Betty Wood. Come Shouting to Zion: African-American Protestantism in the American South and British Caribbean to 1830. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1998.

Gaustad, Edwin S., ed. A Documentary History of Religion in America. With revisions by Mark A. Noll. Grand Rapids, MI: W. B. Eerdmans Pub., 2003.

Gaustad, Edwin S. Faith of Our Fathers: Religion and the New Nation. San Francisco, CA: Harper & Row, 1987.

Gaustad, Edwin S. Liberty of Conscience: Roger Williams in America. Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1991.

Gewehr, Wesley M. The Great Awakening in Virginia. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1930.

Gillespie, Joanna Bowen. "1795: Martha Laurens Ramsay's 'Dark Night of the Soul.'" William and Mary Quarterly 48 (1991):68-92.

Greven, Philip J., Jr. The Protestant Temperament: Patterns of Child-rearing, Religious Experience and the Self in Early America. New York, NY: Alfred A. Knopf, 1977.

Gundersen, Joan R. "The Non-Institutional Church: The Religious Role of Women in Eighteenth-Century Virginia." Historical Magazine of the Protestant Episcopal Church, LI (1982): 347–357.

Gundersen, Joan R. "The Search for Good Men: Recruiting Ministers in Colonial Virginia." Historical Magazine of the Protestant Episcopal Church, XLVIII (1979): 453–464.

Hall, Timothy D. Contested Boundaries: Itinerancy and the Reshaping of the Colonial American Religious World. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1994.

Hallman, E. C. The Garden of Methodism. Wilmington, DE: Peninsula Annual Conference of the Methodist Church, 1947.

Hein, David. and Gardiner H. Shattuck, Jr. The Episcopalians. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 2004.

Henry, Stuart. George Whitefield: Wayfaring Saint. New York, NY: Abingdon Press. 1957

Holmes, David L. A Brief History of the Episcopal Church. Valley Forge, PA: Trinity Press International, 1993.

Holmes, David L. The Religion of the Founding Fathers. Charlottesville, VA: Ash Lawn-Highland; Ann Arbor : William L. Clements Library, 2003.

Hutson, James H. Forgotten Features of the Founding: The Recovery of Religious Themes in the Early American Republic. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2003.

Hutson, James H. Religion and the Founding of the American Republic. Washington, DC: Library of Congress, 1998.

Hutson, James H., ed. Religion and the New Republic: Faith in the Founding of America. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2000.

Ingersoll, Thomas N. "'Release us out of this Cruell Bondegg': An Appeal from Virginia in 1723." William and Mary Quarterly LI (1994): 777–782.

Levy, Babette. "Early Puritanism in the Southern and Island Colonies," Proceedings of the American Antiquarian Society, LXX (1960), pp. 69-348.

Longmore, Paul K. "From Supplicants to Constituents." The Virginia Magazine of History and Biography, CIII (1995): 407-442.

Mapp, Alf J. The Faiths of Our Fathers: What America's Founders Really Believed. Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2003.

Marcus, Jacob Rader. The Colonial American Jew 1492-1776. 3 vols. Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1970.

Mathews, Donald G. Religion in the Old South. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1977.

Maxson, Charles. The Great Awakening in the Middle Colonies. Gloucester: University of Chicago Press, 1920.

Mbiti, John S. African Religions and Philosophy. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann Educational Books, 1990.

Mbiti, John S. Introduction to African Religion. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann Educational Books, 1991.

Mouw, Richard J. and Mark A. Noll. Wonderful Words of Life: Hymns in American Protestant History and Theology. Grand Rapids, MI: W.B. Eerdmans, 2004.

Nelson, John K. A Blessed Company: Parishes, Parsons, and Parishioners in Anglican Virginia, 1690–1776. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2002.

Noll, Mark A. A History of Christianity in the United States and Canada. Grand rapids, MI: W. B. Eerdmans, 1992.

Noll, Mark A. The Rise of Evangelicalism: The Age of Edwards, Whitefield, and the Wesleys. Downers Grove, Il: InterVarsity Press, 2003.

Peterson, Merrill D., and Robert C. Vaughan, eds. Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom: Its Evolution and Consequences in American History. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press, 1988.

Pilmore, Joseph. The Journal of Joseph Pilmore, Methodist Itinerant, for the Years August 1, 1769, to January 2, 1774. Philadelphia, PA: Message Pub. Co., 1969.

Raboteau, Albert J. Slave Religion: "The Invisible Institution" in the Antebellum South. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 1978.

Rowe, Linda. "Freeing Religion." In Cary Carson, ed. Becoming Americans: Our Struggle To Be Both Free and Equal. Williamsburg, VA: The Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, 2004.

Ruether, Rosemary R. and Rosemary S. Keller, eds. Women and Religion in America. Vol. 1. The Nineteenth Century. Vol. 2. The Colonial and Revolutionary Periods. San Francisco, CA: Harper & Row, 1981.

Ryland, Garnett. The Baptists of Virginia, 1699–1926. Richmond, VA: Virginia Baptist Board of Missions and Education, 1955.

Schlenther, Boyd. The Life and Writings of Francis Mekemmie. Philadelphia, PA: Presbyterian Historical Society, 1971.

Sobel, Mechal. Trabelin' On: The Slave Journey to an Afro-Baptist Faith. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1988.

Sweet, William. Religion in Colonial America. New York, NY: Charles Scribner's Sons. 1942

Trinterud, L. J. The forming of an American Tradition: A Re-examination of Colonial Presbyterianism. Philadelphia : Westminster Press, 1959.

Upton, Dell. Holy Things and Profane: Anglican Parish Churches in Colonial Virginia. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1986.

Wallace, Adam. The Parson of the Islands. Reprint. Cambridge, MD: Tidewater, 1961.

Whitney, Alethea. A History of Manokin Presbyterian Church, 1672-1980. Denton, Maryland: Baker Printing Co., 1981.

Williams, William Henry. The Garden of American Methodism: The Delmarva Peninsula, 1769-1820. Wilmington, Delaware: Scholarly Resources, Inc., 1984.

Woodson, Carter G. The History of the Negro Church. Washington, D.C.: Associated Publishers, 1992. Worrall, Jay. The Friendly Virginians: America’s First Quakers. Athens, GA: Iberian, 1994.


Society, Culture, Education

Baumgarten, Linda. What Clothes Reveal: The Language of Clothing in Colonial and Federal America. Williamsburg, VA: Colonial Williamsburg Foundation; 2002.

Behre, H. Edward. "Square Dancing on the Eastern Shore." Southern Folklore Quarterly 9 (1945): 213.

Bushman, Richard L. The Refinement of America. Persons, Houses, Cities. New York, NY: Alfred A. Knopf, 1992.

Calvert, Karin. Children in the House: The Material Culture of Early Childhood, 1600-1900. Boston, MA: Northeastern University Press, 1992.

Carr, Lois Green, Philip Morgan, et. al., Colonial Chesapeake Society. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1988.

Carson, Cary, Ronald Hoffman, and Peter J. Albert, eds. Of Consuming Interests: The Style of Life in the Eighteenth Century. Charlottesville, VA: University Press of Virginia, 1994.

Crowley, John E. The Invention of Comfort: Sensibilities and Design in Early Modern Britain and Early America. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2001.

Demos, John. Past, Present, and Personal: The Family and the Life Course in American History. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 1986.

Garrett, Elisabeth Donaghy. At Home: The American Family, 1750-1870. New York, NY: Harry N. Abrams, 1990.

Gibbs, Patricia, Anne Schone, and George Hassell. "Redefining Family." In Becoming Americans: Our Struggle To Be Both Free and Equal, Cary Carson, ed. Williamsburg, VA: The Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, 2004.

Graham, Willie. "Chesapeake Colonial Family Kitchens." In The Cook's Room, Alan Davidson, ed. New York: Doubleday, 1991.

Graham, Willie. "Genteel Punches and Drunken Balls: The Creation of a Recognizable Tavern Form in the Early Chesapeake." The Bulletin of the Northumberland County Historical Society 6 (1990).

Greene, Jack P. Pursuits of Happiness: The Social Development of Early Modern British Colonies and the Formation of American Culture. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1988.

Greven, Philip. The Protestant Temperament: Patterns of Child-Rearing, Religious Experience, and the Self in Early America. New York, NY: Alfred A. Knopf, 1977.

Horn, James. "Adapting to a New World: A Comparative Study of Local Society in England and Maryland, 1650-1700." In Colonial Chesapeake Society, Carr, et. al. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1988.

Kulikoff, Allan. "The Colonial Chesapeake: Seedbed of Antebellum Southern Culture." Journal of Southern History XLV (1979): 12-540.

Kulikoff, Allan. "The Origins of Domestic Patriarchy among White Families." In Tobacco and Slaves: The Development of Southern Cultures in the Chesapeake, 1680-1800, Kulikoff, Allan. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1986.

Kulikoff, Allan. Tobacco and Slaves: The Development of Southern Cultures in the Chesapeake. 1680-l800. 1986, University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, 449 pp.

Mintz, Steven and Susan Kellogg. Domestic Revolutions: A Social History of American Family Life. New York, NY: Free Press, 1988.

Morgan, Edmund S. Virginians at Home: Family Life in the Eighteenth Century. Williamsburg, VA: Colonial Wiliamsburg, 1952.

Perry, James R. The Formation of A Society on Virginia's Eastern Shore, 1615-1990. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press,1984.

Powers, Emma L., and Pamela S. Pettengell. "Buying Respectability." In Becoming Americans: Our Struggle To Be Both Free and Equal, Cary Carson, ed. Williamsburg, VA: The Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, 2004.

Reaves, William A. "The Maryland Gentry and Social Mobility, 1637-1676." William and Mary Quarterly XIV (1951): 418-428.

Rutman and Rutman. "Now-Wives and Sons-in-Law: Parental Death in a Seventeenth Century Virginia County." In The Chesapeake in the Seventeenth Century: Essays on Anglo-American Society, Thad W. Tate and David L. Ammerman, eds., Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1979.

Shammas, Carole. "Anglo-American Household Government in Comparative Perspective." William and Mary Quarterly 52 (1995): 104-144.

Smith, Barbara Clark. After the Revolution: The Smithsonian History of Everyday Life in the Eighteenth Century. New York, NY: Pantheon Books, 1986.

Smith, Daniel Blake. Inside the Great House: Planter and Family Life in Eighteenth-Century Chesapeake Society. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1980.

Smith, Daniel Blake. "Mortality and Family in the Colonial Chesapeake." Interdisciplinary History VIII (1977): 410-418.

Stump, Brice Neal, Unforgettable Treasures: People, Places, and Culture of the Eastern Shore. Virginia Beach, VA: Donning Co. Publisher, 2000.

Tate, Thad W. and David L. Ammerman, eds. The Chesapeake in the Seventeenth Century: Essays on Anglo-American Society. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1979.

Walsh, Lorena S. From Calabar to Carter's Grove: The History of a Virginia Slave Community. Charlottesville, VA: University Press of Virginia, 1997.

Wolf, Stephanie Grauman. As Various as Their Land: The Everyday Lives of Eighteenth Century Americans. New York, NY: Harper Collins, 1993.

Wood, Gordon S. "Patriarchal Dependence" and "Enlightened Paternalism." In The Radicalism of the American Revolution. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1991.


Women

Berkus, Catherine. Strangers and Pilgrims: Female Preaching in America, 1740-1845. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1998.

Brown, Kathleen M. Good Wives, Nasty Wenches, and Anxious Patriarchs: Gender, Race, and Power in Colonial Virginia. Chapel Hill, N.C.: University of North Carolina Press, 1996.

Gundersen, Joan R. "The Non-Institutional Church: The Religious Role of Women in Eighteenth-Century Virginia." Historical Magazine of the Protestant Episcopal Church, LI (1982): 347–357.

Gunderson, Joan R. To Be Useful to the World: Women in Revolutionary America, 1740-1790. New York, NY: Twayne Publishers, 1996.

Hoffman, Ronald, and Peter J. Albert, eds. Women in the Age of the American Revolution. Charlottesville, VA: University Press of Virginia, 1989.

Kierner, Cynthia A. Beyond the Household: Women's Place in the Early South, 1700-1835. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1998.

Lebsock, Suzanne. Virginia Women, 1600-1945: "A Share of Honour." Richmond, VA: Virginia State Library, 1987.

Morgan, Jennifer L. Laboring Women: Reproduction and Gender in New World Slavery. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2004.

Norton, Mary Beth. Founding Mothers and Fathers: Gendered Power and the Forming of American Society. New York, NY: Alfred A. Knopf, 1996.

Salmon, Marylynn. Women and the Law of Property in Early America. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1986.

Snyder, Terri L. Brabbling Women: Disorderly Speech and the Law in Early Virginia. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2003.

Spruill, Julia C. Women's Life and Work in the Southern Colonies. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1938.

Sturtz, Linda L. Within Her Power: Propertied Women in Colonial America. New York, NY: Routledge, 2002.

Thompson, Roger. Women in Stuart England and America: A Comparative Study. Boston, MA: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1974.





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