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Resources for Researchers

* Maryland - Secondary Sources
Also see: MD Primary Sources | DE Secondary Sources

What is the difference between a primary and secondary source?
Primary sources are "actual records that have survived from the past, such as letters, photographs, articles of clothing." Secondary sources are "accounts of the past created by people writing about events sometime after they happened." [Library of Congress definition]


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Delmarva Bibliography
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African American

Berlin, Ira. Many Thousands Gone: The First Two Centuries of Slavery in North America. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1998.

Berlin, Ira. "Time Space and the Evolution of Afro-American Society in the British Mainland North America." American Historical Review 85(1980): 44-78.

Carr, Lois, et. al. "Immigration and Opportunity: The Freedmen in Early Colonial Maryland." In The Chesapeake in the Seventeenth Century: Essays on Anglo-American Society, Thad W. Tate and David Ammerman. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1979.

Cassimere, Raphael. "The Origins and Early Development of Slavery in Maryland, 1633-1715." Ph.D. Diss. 1971, Lehigh University.

Curtin, Philip D., ed. Africa Remembered: Narratives by West Africans from the Era of the Slave Trade. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press, 1967.

Dunn, Richard S. "Black Society in the Chesapeake, 1776-1810." In Slavery and Freedom in the Age of the American Revolution. Ira Berlin and Ronald Hoffman, eds.Charlottesville, VA: University Press of Virginia, 1983.

Ferguson, Leland. Uncommon Ground: Archaeology and Early African America, 1650-1800. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1992.

Frey, Sylvia R. Water from the Rock: Black Resistance in a Revolutionary Age. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1991.

Frey, Sylvia R., and Betty Wood. Come Shouting to Zion: African-American Protestantism in the American South and British Caribbean to 1830. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1998.

Gomez, Michael A. Exchanging Our Country Marks: The Transformation of African Identities in the Colonial and Antebellum South. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1998.

Gutman, Herbert G. The Black Family in Slavery and Freedom, 1750-1925. New York, NY: Pantheon Books, 1976.

Jordan, Winthrop D. White Over Black: American Attitudes Toward the Negro, 1550-1812. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1968.

Kimmel, Ross, "Free Blacks in Seventeenth Century Maryland." Maryland Historical Magazine 71(1976): 19-25.

Kulikoff, Allan. "The Beginnings of the Afro-American Family in Maryland." In Law, Society, and Politics in Early Maryland, Aubrey C. Land, Lois Green Carr, and Edward C. Papenfuse, eds. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1977.

Kulikoff, Allan. "The Origins of Afro-American Society in Tidewater Maryland and Virginia, 1700-1790." William and Mary Quarterly 35 (1978): 226-259.

Kulikoff, Allan. "A Prolific People: Black Population Growth in the Chesapeake Colonies, 1700-1790." Southern Studies 16 (1977): 391-428.

Kulikoff, Allan. Tobacco and Slaves: The Development of Southern Culture in the Chesapeake, 1680-1800. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1986.

Lee, Jean B. "The Problem of Slave Community in the Eighteenth-Century Chesapeake." William and Mary Quarterly 43 (1986): 333-361.

Menard, Russel. "The Maryland Slave Population, 1658-1730: A Demographic Profile of Blacks in Four Counties." William and Mary Quarterly 32 (1975): 29-54.

Morgan, Edmund S. American Slavery, American Freedom: The Ordeal of Colonial Virginia. New York, NY: W.W. Norton, 1975.

Morgan, Philip D. Slave Counterpoint: Black Culture in the Eighteenth-Century Chesapeake and Lowcountry. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1998.

Raboteau, Albert J. Slave Religion: "The Invisible Institution" in the Antebellum South. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 1978.

Singleton, Theresa A. "The Archaeology of Slave Life." In Before Freedom Came: African-American Life in the Antebellum South. Edward D. C. Campbell, Jr., ed. Published for the Museum of the Confederacy, Charlottesville, VA: University Press of Virginia, 1991.

Thornton, John. Africa and Africans in the Making of the Atlantic World, 1400-1680. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press, 1992.

Walsh, Lorena S. "Fettered Consumers: Slaves and the Anglo-American 'Consumer Revolution.'" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Economic History Association, 1992, copy, John D. Rockefeller Jr. Library, Colonial Williamsburg Foundation.

Walsh, Lorena S. "Slave Life, Slave Society, and Tobacco Production in the Tidewater Chesapeake." In Cultivation and Culture: Labor and the Shaping of Slave Life in the Americas. Ira Berlin and Philip D. Morgan, eds. Charlottesville, VA: University Press of Virginia, 1993.

Yentsch, Anne Elizabeth. A Chesapeake Family and Their Slaves: A Study in Historical Archaeology. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press, 1994.


Archaeology

Deetz, James. In Small Things Forgotten: The Archaeology of Early American Life. Garden City, New York, NY: Doubleday, 1977.


Architecture and Historic Preservation

Beckerdite, Luke. "William Buckland Reconsidered: Architectural Carving in Chesapeake Maryland." Journal of the Museum of Early Southern Decorative Arts 8 (1982), 43-88.

Beirne, Rosamond and John Scarff. William Buckland: Architect of Virginia and Maryland. Baltimore, MD: Gunston Hall, Hammond-Harwood House, 1958.

Blumgart, Pamela J., ed. At The Head Of The Bay, A Cultural and Architectural History of Cecil County, Maryland. Annapolis, MD: Maryland Historical Trust Press, 1996.

Bourne, Michael, Orlando Ridout V, Paul Touart, and Donna Ware. Architecture and Change in the Chesapeake, A Field Tour. Annapolis, MD: VAF/MHT, 1998.

Bourne, Michael O. and Eugene H. Johnstone. Historic Houses of Kent: An Architectural History: 1642-1860. Chestertown, MD: The Historical Society of Kent County, 1998.

Carson, Cary, Norman Barka, William Kelso, et al. "Impermanent Architecture in the Southern American Colonies." Winterthur Portfolio 16 (1981): 113—157.

Carson, Cary. "The 'Virginia House' in Maryland." Maryland Historical Magazine 69 (1974), 185-196.

Chappell, Edward. "Housing a Nation: The Transformation of Living Standards in Early America." In Of Consuming Interests: The Style of Life in the Eighteenth Century. Cary Carson, et al, eds. Charlottesville, VA: University Press of Virginia, 1994.

Earle, Swepson, ed. Maryland's Colonial Eastern Shore: Historical Sketches of Counties and Some Notable Structures. Baltimore, MD: Munder Thompsen Press, 1916.

Forman, H. C. Architecture of the Old South. The Medieval Style 1585 - 1850. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1948.

Herman, Bernard. "Architectural Renewal and the Maintenance of Customary Relationships." Material Culture 19 (1987): 85-99

Herman, Bernard. "History on the Move." Coastwatch, May, 1985. (Sussex County architecture and housing).

Hughes, Elizabeth. Historic St. Michael's: An Architectural History. St. Michael's, MD.: St. Michael's-Bay Hundred, Inc., 1996.

Jopling, Carol F. Churches of Somerset County Maryland: Evolving Church Architecture in the Changing landscape of Somerset County, Maryland, 1660-1993. Annapolis, MD: Annapolis Publishing Company, 2000.

Kimball, Fiske. Domestic Architecture of the American Colonies and the Early Republic. New York, NY: Dover, 1966.

Lane, Mills. Architecture of the Old South: Maryland. Savannah, GA: Beehive Press Book, 1991.

Linebaugh, Donald. "'All the Annoyances and Incon­veniencies of the Country': Environmental Factors in the Development of Outbuildings in the Colonial Chesapeake." Winterthur Portfolio 29 (1994): 1-18.

Lounsbury, Carl. An Illustrated Glossary of Early Southern Architecture and Landscape. 1994; Reprint, Charlottesville, VA: The University Press of Virginia, 1999.

Marzio, Peter. "Carpentry in the Southern Colonies during the Eighteenth Century with Emphasis on Maryland and Virginia." Winterthur Portfolio 7 (1972): 229-250.

Morrison, Hugh. Early American Architecture: From the First Colonial Settlements to the National Period. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 1952.

Reps, John. Tidewater Towns: City Planning in Colonial Virginia and Maryland. Williamsburg, VA: The Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, 1972.

Ridgely, Helen West, The Old Brick Churches of Maryland. New York, NY: Anson D.F. Randolph, 1894.

Sarudy, Barbara. Gardens and Gardening in the Chesapeake, 1700-1805. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins Press, 1998.

Shurtleff, Harold R. The Log Cabin Myth: A Study of the Early Dwellings of the English Colonists in North America. Reprint of the original edition edited with an introduction by Samuel Eliot Morison. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1939.

Touart, Paul Baker. Along the Seaboard Side: The Architectural History of Worcester County, Maryland. Snow Hill, MD: Worcester County, 1994.

Touart, Paul Baker. Somerset, An Architectural History. Princess Anne, MD: Somerset County and the Maryland Historical Trust, 1990.

Upton, Dell. "The Origins of Chesapeake Architecture." In Three Centuries of Maryland Architecture. Annapolis, MD: Maryland Historical Trust, 1982.

Weeks, Christopher, ed. Between the Nanticoke and the Choptank, An Architectural History of Dorchester County, Maryland. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press and Maryland Historical Trust, 1984.

Weeks, Christopher, ed. Where Land And Water Intertwine, An Architectural History of Talbot County, Maryland. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press and Maryland Historical Trust, 1984.


Biography, Letters, Reminiscences

Okonowicz, Ed. Disappearing Delmarva: Portraits of the Peninsula People. Elkton, MD: Myst and Lace Publishers, 1997.

Roth, Hal. The Monster's Handsome Face: Patty Cannon in Fiction & Fact. Vienna, MD: Nanticoke Books, 1998.

Claiborne, John Herbert. William Claiborne of Virginia, with Some Account of his Pedigree. New York, NY: G. P. Putnam's sons, 1917.


County and Local History

Clark, Charles B. Eastern Shore of Maryland and Virginia. 3 vols. New York, NY: Lewis Historical Publishing Co., 1950.

Craven, Wesley Frank. The Southern Colonies in the Seventeenth Century 1607-1689. Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State University Press, 1949.

Johnson, Bradley Tyler. The Founding of the Eastern Shore: an address by Bradley T. Johnson, delivered at the centennial celebration of Easton. Baltimore, MD: The Sun Book and Job Printing Office, 1888.

Main, Gloria. Tobacco Colony: Life in Early Maryland, 1650-1720. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1982.

Smith, James Morton, ed. Seventeenth Century America: Essays in Colonial History. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1959.

Tawes, William I. God, Man, Saltwater and the Eastern Shore. Cambridge, MD: Tidewater Publishing, 1967.

Wennersten, John R. Maryland's Eastern Shore: A Journey in Time and Place. Centreville, MD: Tidewater Publishers, 1992.

Willis, Bob. "On the Eastern Shore, Time Stands Still." The Philadelphia Sunday Bulletin, August 22, 1976.

Wycherly, H. Alan. "H.L. Mencken vs. the Eastern Shore: December 1931." Bulletin of the New York Public Library 74 (1970): 381-390.

Caroline County

Cochrane, Laura C. A History of Caroline County, Maryland from Its Beginning. Baltimore, MD: Regional Publishing Co., 1971.

Horsey, Eleanor F. Origins of Caroline County, Maryland from Land Plats. Denton, MD: The Author, 1974.

Cecil County

Johnston, George. History of Cecil County, Maryland, and the Early Settlements around the Head of Chesapeake Bay and on the Delaware River, with Sketches of Some of the Old Families of Cecil County. Baltimore, MD: Regional, 1967.

Dorchester County

Jones, Elias. New Revised History of Dorchester County, Maryland (Cambridge, MD: Tidewater, 1966)

Stump, Brice Neal. Between the Blackwater and the Nanticoke: History and Legend of Eastern Dorchester County, 1967.

Stump, Brice Neal. It happened in Dorchester: a Collection of Stories Dealing with the Legend and Lore, Vanished Communities and Historic Homes of Dorchester County. Easton, MD: Economy Printing, 1969.

Kent County / Kent Island

Hoxter, Nick. Growing Up on Kent Island: the Author's Remembrance of Life in the 30s and 40s. Grasonville, MD: William N. Hoxter, Jr. and M.R.H. Publishing, 1996.

Hoxter, Nick. A Walk Back in Time: Kent Island Remembered in Pictures, a Pictorial History of Yesterday on the Island. Grasonville, MD: William N. Hoxter, Jr. and MRH Publishing LLC, 1997.

Isaac, Erich. "Kent Island, Part I: The Period of Settlement." Maryland Historical Magazine 52 (1957): 93-119.

Isaac, Erich. "Kent Island, Part II: Settlement and Land Holdings Under the Proprietary." Maryland Historical Magazine 52 (1957): 210-224.

Isaac, Erich. "Kent Island, Part III: Kent Fort Manor." Maryland Historical Magazine 52 (1957): 225-232.

Isaac, Erich. First Century of the Settlement of Kent Island. Ph.D. dissertation, Johns Hopkins University, 1957.

Schoch, Mildred Cook. Of History and Houses: a Kent Island Heritage. Queenstown, MD: Queen Anne Press, 1982.

Steiner, Bernard Christian. "Kent County and Kent Island, 1656-1662." Maryland Historical Magazine 8 (1913): 1-33.

Thom, DeCourcy Wright. Claiborne and Kent Island in Maryland history: address of DeCourcy W. Thom delivered before The Eastern Shore Society of Baltimore City at its meeting held at the Hotel Rennert, Maryland day, March 25th, 1915. NP: Press of Springfield State Hospital, 1915.

Truitt, Reginald Van. Kent Island: Maryland's Oldest Settlement. Stevensville, MD: Women of Christ Church, 1965.

Truitt Reginald Van. The Saga of Blunt's Warehouse, Kent Island, Maryland. Maryland: Queen Anne's County Historical Society, 1980.

Usilton, Fred G. History of Kent County, Maryland, 1630-1916. Reprint. Chestertown, MD: Perry Publications, 1980.

"William Claiborne and Kent Island," Maryland Historical Magazine 2 (1907): 160-163.

Queen Annes County

"I remember when..." essays about everyday life in Queen Anne's county as it once was, written by folks who remember when. Queen Anne's County Record Observer/Kent Island Bay Times, 1985.

Scisco, Louis Dow. "Colonial Records of Queen Anne's County." Maryland Historical Magazine 24 (1929): 224-228.

Somerset County

Torrence, Clayton. Old Somerset on the Eastern Shore of Maryland: A Study in Foundations and Founders. Baltimore, MD: Regional Publishing Co., 1835.

Talbot County

Mullikin, James C. Ghost Towns of Talbot County. Easton, MD: Easton Pub. Co., 1961.

Preston, Dickson J. and Norman Harrington. Talbot County: a History. Centreville, MD: Tidewater Publishers, 1983.

Tilghman, Oswald. History of Talbot County, Maryland 1661-1861. Reprint. Baltimore, MD: Regional, 1967.

Wicomico County

Corddry, George H. Wicomico County History. Salisbury, MD: Peninsula Press, 1981.

Worcester County

Cozzens, Arthur B. Whaleyville. Snow Hill, MD: Worcester County Library, 1973.

Truitt, Reginald Van. Assateague ... the "Place Across": a Saga of Assateague Island. College Park, MD: Natural Resources Institute, University of Maryland, 1971.

Truitt, Reginald Van and Millard LesCallette, Millard. Worcester County: Maryland's Arcadia. Snow Hill, MD: Worcester County Historical Society, 1977.

Wroten, William H. Jr. Assateague. Salisbury, MD: Peninsula, 1970.


Economic, Business, and Labor

Breen, T.H. "An Empire of Goods: The Anglicization of Colonial America, 1690-1776." Journal of British Studies 25 (1986): 467-499.

Breen, T.H. The Marketplace of Revolution: How Consumer Politics Shaped American Independence. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2004.

Breen, T.H. "Narrative of Commercial Life: Consumption, Ideology, and Community on the Eve of the American Revolution." William and Mary Quarterly 50 (1993): 471-501.

Bridenbaugh, Carl. Myths and Realities: Societies of the Colonial South. New York, NY: Atheneum, 1963.

Cassimere, Raphael. The Origins and Early Development of Slavery in Maryland, 1633-1715. Ph.D. diss.,Lehigh University, 1971.

Clemens, Paul G. The Atlantic Economy and Colonial Maryland's Eastern Shore: From Tobacco to Grain. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1980.

Clemens, Paul G. "Economy and Society on Maryland's Eastern Shore, 1689-1733." In Law, Society and Politics in Early Maryland, Carr, et. al. Baltimore, MD: Proceedings of the First Conference on Maryland History, 1977.

Clemens, Paul G. From Tobacco to Grain: Economic Development on Maryland's Eastern Shore, 1660-1750. Ph.D. diss., University of Wisconsin, 1974

Clemens, Paul G. "The Settlement and Growth of Maryland's Eastern Shore During the English Restoration." Maryland Historian, 5 (1974): 63-78.

Handlin, Oscar and Mary. "Origins of the Southern Labor System," William and Mary Quarterly 7 (1950): 199-222.

Horn, James. "Servant Emigration to the Chesapeake in the Seventeenth Century." In The Chesapeake in the Seventeenth Century: Essays on Anglo-American Society, Tate, Thad W. and David L. Ammerman, eds. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1979.

Horn, James. "Economic Behavior in a Planting Society: The Eighteenth Century Chesapeake." Journal of Southern History, 33 (1967): 669-485.

Innes, Stephen, ed. Work and Labor in Early America. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1988.

Jernegan, Marcus. Laboring and Dependent Classes in Colonial America. Chicago, IL: Univ. of Chicago Press. 1931.

Kulikoff, Allan. "The Economic Growth of the Eighteenth Century Chesapeake in the Eighteenth Century." Journal of Economic History 39 (1979): 275-288.

Land, Aubrey. "Economic Base and Social Structure: The Northern Chesapeake in the Eighteenth Century," Journal of Economic History 25 (1965): 639-654.

Land, Aubrey. "Economic Behavior in a Planting Society: The Eighteenth Century Chesapeake," Journal of Southern History, 33 (1967): 469-485.

Land, Aubrey. "The Planters of Colonial Maryland." Maryland Historical Magazine 67 (1972): 109-128.

Main, Gloria L. Personal Wealth in Colonial America: Explorations in the use of Probate Records from Maryland and Massachusetts, 1650-1720. Ph.D. diss., Columbia University, 1972.

Main, Gloria L. "Maryland and the Chesapeake Economy, 1670-1720." In Law, Society and Politics in Early Maryland, Carr, et. al. Baltimore, MD: Proceedings of the First Conference on Maryland History, 1977.

McCormac, E. I. White Servitude in Maryland, 1634-1820. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1978.

Menard, Russel. Economy and Society in Early Colonial Maryland. Ph.D Diss., University of Iowa, 1975.

Menard, Russel. "From Servants to Slaves: The Transformation of the Chesapeake Labor System, 1680-1710." Southern Studies 16(1977): 55-390.

Menard, Russel. "A Small Planter's Profits: The Cole Estate and the Growth of the Early Chesapeake Colonies." William and Mary Quarterly 40 (1983): 171-196.

Morgan, Edmund S. "Headrights and Head Counts." The Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 80 (1972): 361-371.

Price, Jacob. France and the Chesapeake: A History of the French Tobacco Monopoly, 1674-1791, and of Its Relationship to the British and American Tobacco Trades. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 1973.

Price, Jacob. Capital and Credit in British Overseas Trade: The View from the Chesapeake, 1700-1776. Cambridge, MA: Marvard University Press, 1980.

Shammas, Carole. The Pre-Industrial Consumer in England and America. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1990.

Smith, Abbott. Colonists in Bondage: White Servitude and Convict Labor in America, 1607-1776. Chapel Hill, NC.: University of North Carolina, 1947.

Smith, Abbot. "The Indentured Servant and Land speculation in Seventeenth Century Maryland," American Historical Review, XL (1934): 467-472.

Stiverson, Gregory. Landless Husbandmen: Proprietary Tenants in Maryland in the Late Colonial Period.

Stiverson, Gregory. Poverty in a Land of Plenty: Tenancy in Eighteenth Century Maryland. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1977.


Genealogy

 


Geography, Agriculture

Bigbee, Janet H. The Eastern Shore in the Seventeenth Century: a Perception if the Physical Landscape Through the Medium of Language. M.A. dissertation, University of Maryland, 1970.

Carr, Lois Green, et. al. Robert Cole's World: Agriculture and Society in Early Maryland. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1991.

Craven, Avery O. Soil Exhaustion as a Factor in the Agricultural History of Virginia and Maryland, 1606-1860. Urbana, IL: The University of Illinois, 1926.

Palmer, Catherine Bell. "'Delmarva,' Gift of the Sea." National Geographic IIC (1950): 367-399.

Raymond, John A. A Historical Geography of the Eastern Shore of Maryland. M.A. dissertation, Syracuse University, 1968.


Literature, Folklore

Bergen, Fanny D. "On the Eastern Shore." Journal of American Folklore 2 (1889): 295-300.

Jopp, Harold D. and R.H. Ingersoll. Shoreman: An Anthology of Eastern Shore Prose and Verse. Cambridge, MD: Tidewater, 1974.

Knust, Karl B, Jr. The Werewolf Pilot of the Eastern Shore and Other Stories: Five Stories. Easton, MD: 1972.

Lewis, John. Tales of the Eastern Shore. Wilmington, DE: Cedar Tree Books, 1997.

Roth, Hal. You Can't Never Get to Puckum: Folks and Tales from Delmarva. Vienna, MD: Nanticoke Books, 1997.

Roth, Hal. You Still Can't Get to Puckum: More Folks & Tales from Delmarva. Vienna, MD: Nanticoke Books, 2000.

Roth, Hal. In Days Gone By and Other Tales from Delmarva. Vienna, MD: Nanticoke Books, 2002.

Schofield, Clay. "An Annotated Bibliography of Folklore Material for the Eastern Shore." Free State Folklore 3 (1976): 19-55.

Shannahan, John Henry Kelly, Jr. Tales of Old Maryland; History and Romance on the Eastern Shore of Maryland. Baltimore, MD: Press of Meyer & Thalheimer, 1907.


Maritime, Military

Middleton, Arthur P. Tobacco coast: A Maritime History of The Chesapeake Bay in the Colonial Era. Reprint. Baltimore, MD, 1984.


Native Americans

Axtell, James. The Invasion Within: The Contest of Cultures in Colonial North America. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 1985.

Baumgartner-Wagner, Norma A. An Ethnohistorical Investigation of Maryland Indians, A.D. 1600-1800. M.A. dissertation, American University, 1979.

Boender, Debra Ruth. Our Fires Have Nearly Gone Out: a History of Indian-White Relations on the Colonial Maryland Frontier, 1633-1776. Ph.D. dissertation, University of New Mexico, 1988.

Curry, Dennis C. Feast of the Dead: Aboriginal Ossuaries in Maryland. Crownsville, MD: Maryland Historical Trust Press, 1999.

Heckewelder, John. Narrative of the Mission of the United Brethren Among the Delaware and Mohegan Indians. Reprint. New York, NY: Arno Press, 1971.

Hughes, Richard B. A Cultural and Environmental Overview of the Prehistory of Maryland's Lower Eastern Shore: Based upon a Study of Selected Artifact Collections. Annapolis, MD: Maryland Historical Trust and the Tidewater Administration, 1980.

Jennings, Francis. The Invasion of America: Indians, Colonialism, and the Cant of Conquest. New York, NY: Norton, 1976.

Kupperman, Karen O. Settling with the Indians: The Meeting of English and Indian Cultures in America, 1580-1640. Totowa, NJ: Rowman and Littlefield, 1980.

Merritt, Jane T. At the Crossroad: Indians and Empire on a Mid-Atlantic Frontier, 1700-1763. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2003.

Nash, Gary B. "The Image of Indians in the Southern Colonial Mind." William and Mary Quarterly 2 (1972): 197-230.

Porter, Frank W., III. "A Century of Accommodation: The Nanticoke Indians in Colonial Maryland." Maryland Historical Magazine 74 (1979): 175-192.

Porter, Frank W., III. Indians in Maryland and Delaware: a Critical Bibliography. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1979.

Porter, Frank W., III. In Pursuit of the Past: an Anthropological and Bibliographic Guide to Maryland and Delaware. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1986.

Richter, Daniel K. Facing East from Indian Country: A Native History of Early America. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2001.

Rountree, Helen C. and Thomas E. Davidson. Eastern Shore Indians of Virginia and Maryland. Charlottesville, VA: University Press of Virginia, 1997.

Seabrease, Wilsie G. The Nanticokes and Other Indians of Delmarva. Easton, MD: Easton Publishing Co., 1969.

Semmes, Raphael. "Aboriginal Maryland 1608-1689." Maryland Historical Magazine 24 (1929): 157-172.

Speck, Frank G. Indians of the Eastern Shore of Maryland, before the Eastern Shore Society of Baltimore City, Maryland Day Celebration ... March 29th, 1922. Baltimore, MD: Springfield State Hospital Press, 1922.

Speck, Frank G. "Seventeenth Century Virginia Algonquian Population Estimates." Archaeological Society of Virginia, Quarterly Bulletin XXVIII (1975): 150-159.

Trigger, Bruce. "Early Native North American Responses to European Contact: Romantic versus Rationalistic Interpretations." Journal of American History 77 (1991): 1195-1215.

Weslager, Clinton Alfred. Indians of the Eastern Shore of Maryland and Virginia. New York, NY: Lewis Historical Publishing Co., 1950.


Politics, Law, Government

Kukla, Jon. "Order and Chaos in Early America: Political and Social Stability in Pre-Restoration Virginia." American Historical Review, XC (1985): 275-298.

Land, Aubrey, Lois Green Cart, and Edward Papenfuse. Law, Society and Politics in Early Maryland. Baltimore, MD: Proceedings of the First Conference on Maryland History, 1977.


Religion

Berkus, Catherine. Strangers and Pilgrims: Female Preaching in America, 1740-1845. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1998.

Bonomi, Patricia. Under the Cope of Heaven: Religion. Society. and Politics in Colonial America. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 1986.

Bridenbaugh, Carl. Mitre and Sceptre: Transatlantic faiths, ideas, personalities, and politics, 1689-1775. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 1967.

Bullock, Steven C. Revolutionary Brotherhood: Freemasonry and the Transformation of the American Social Order, 1730-1840. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1996.

Butler, Jon. Awash in a Sea of Faith: Christianizing the American People. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1990.

Butterfield, Kevin. "Puritans and Religious Strife in the Early Chesapeake." Virginia Magazine of History and Biography CIX (2001): 5-36.

Carroll, Kenneth L. Joseph Nichols and the Nicholites: a Look at the "New Quakers" of Maryland, Delaware, North and South Carolina. Easton, MD: The Easton Publishing Company, 1962.

Carroll, Kenneth L. "Maryland Quakers in the Seventeenth Century." Maryland Historical Magazine 47 (1952): 297-313.

Carroll, Kenneth L. "Persecution of the Quakers in Early Maryland." Quaker History LIII (1964): 67-80.

Carroll, Kenneth L. Quakerism on the Eastern Shore. Baltimore, MD: Maryland Historical Society, 1970.

Cross, Arthur. The Anglican Episcopate and the American Colonies. New York, NY: Longmans, 1902

Earl, Riggins Renal. Dark Symbols, Obscure Signs: God, Self, and Community in the Slave Mind. Knoxville, TN: University of Tennessee Press, 2003.

Frey, Sylvia R. and Betty Wood. Come Shouting to Zion: African-American Protestantism in the American South and British Caribbean to 1830. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1998.

Gaustad, Edwin S., ed. A Documentary History of Religion in America. With revisions by Mark A. Noll. Grand Rapids, MI: W. B. Eerdmans Pub., 2003.

Gaustad, Edwin S. Faith of Our Fathers: Religion and the New Nation. San Francisco, CA: Harper & Row, 1987.

Gaustad, Edwin S. Liberty of Conscience: Roger Williams in America. Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1991.

Gillespie, Joanna Bowen. "1795: Martha Laurens Ramsay's 'Dark Night of the Soul.'" William and Mary Quarterly 48 (1991):68-92.

Graham, Michael. "Meeting House and Chapel: Religion and Community in Seventeenth Century Maryland." In Colonial Chesapeake Society, Carr, et. al. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1988.

Greven, Philip J., Jr. The Protestant Temperament: Patterns of Child-rearing, Religious Experience and the Self in Early America. New York, NY: Alfred A. Knopf, 1977.

Hall, Timothy D. Contested Boundaries: Itinerancy and the Reshaping of the Colonial American Religious World. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1994.

Hallman, E. C. The Garden of Methodism. Wilmington, DE: Peninsula Annual Conference of the Methodist Church, 1947.

Hein, David. and Gardiner H. Shattuck, Jr. The Episcopalians. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 2004.

Henry, Stuart. George Whitefield: Wayfaring Saint. New York, NY: Abingdon Press. 1957

Hoffman, Ronald. Princes of Ireland, Planters of Maryland: A Carroll Saga, 1500-1782. Chapel Hill, N.C.: University of North Carolina Press, 2000.

Holmes, David L. A Brief History of the Episcopal Church. Valley Forge, PA: Trinity Press International, 1993.

Holmes, David L. The Religion of the Founding Fathers. Charlottesville, VA: Ash Lawn-Highland; Ann Arbor : William L. Clements Library, 2003.

Hutson, James H. Forgotten Features of the Founding: The Recovery of Religious Themes in the Early American Republic. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2003.

Hutson, James H. Religion and the Founding of the American Republic. Washington, DC: Library of Congress, 1998.

Hutson, James H., ed. Religion and the New Republic: Faith in the Founding of America. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2000.

Levy, Babette. "Early Puritanism in the Southern and Island Colonies," Proceedings of the American Antiquarian Society, LXX (1960), pp. 69-348.

Longmore, Paul K. "From Supplicants to Constituents." The Virginia Magazine of History and Biography, CIII (1995): 407-442.

Mapp, Alf J. The Faiths of Our Fathers: What America's Founders Really Believed. Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2003.

Marcus, Jacob Rader. The Colonial American Jew 1492-1776. 3 vols. Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1970.

Mathews, Donald G. Religion in the Old South. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1977.

Maxson, Charles. The Great Awakening in the Middle Colonies. Gloucester: University of Chicago Press, 1920.

Mbiti, John S. African Religions and Philosophy. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann Educational Books, 1990.

Mbiti, John S. Introduction to African Religion. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann Educational Books, 1991.

McIlvain, J.W. Early Presbyterianism in Maryland. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins Press, 1890.

Mouw, Richard J. and Mark A. Noll. Wonderful Words of Life: Hymns in American Protestant History and Theology. Grand Rapids, MI: W.B. Eerdmans, 2004.

Noll, Mark A. A History of Christianity in the United States and Canada. Grand rapids, MI: W. B. Eerdmans, 1992.

Noll, Mark A. The Rise of Evangelicalism: The Age of Edwards, Whitefield, and the Wesleys. Downers Grove, Il: InterVarsity Press, 2003.

Page, I. Marshall. Old Buckingham by the Sea on the Eastern Shore of Maryland. Philadelphia, PA: Westminster Press, 1936.

Pilmore, Joseph. The Journal of Joseph Pilmore, Methodist Itinerant, for the Years August 1, 1769, to January 2, 1774. Philadelphia, PA: Message Pub. Co., 1969.

Raboteau, Albert J. Slave Religion: "The Invisible Institution" in the Antebellum South. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 1978.

Randall, Daniel. A Puritan Colony in Maryland. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1886.

Rowe, Linda. "Freeing Religion." In Cary Carson, ed. Becoming Americans: Our Struggle To Be Both Free and Equal. Williamsburg, VA: The Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, 2004.

Ruether, Rosemary R. and Rosemary S. Keller, eds. Women and Religion in America. Vol. 1. The Nineteenth Century. Vol. 2. The Colonial and Revolutionary Periods. San Francisco, CA: Harper & Row, 1981.

Schlenther, Boyd. The Life and Writings of Francis Mekemmie. Philadelphia, PA: Presbyterian Historical Society, 1971.

Sobel, Mechal. Trabelin' On: The Slave Journey to an Afro-Baptist Faith. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1988.

Spalding, H.S. Catholic Colonial Maryland. Milwaukee, WI: The Bruce Publishing Co., 1931.

Sweet, William. Religion in Colonial America. New York, NY: Charles Scribner's Sons. 1942

Todd, Robert. Methodism of the peninsula, or, Sketches of notable characters and events in the history of Methodism in the Maryland and Delaware peninsula. Philadelphia, PA: Methodist Episcopal Book Rooms, 1886.

Trinterud, L. J. The forming of an American Tradition: A Re-examination of Colonial Presbyterianism. Philadelphia : Westminster Press, 1959.

Wallace, Adam. The Parson of the Islands. Reprint. Cambridge, MD: Tidewater, 1961.

Whitney, Alethea. A History of Manokin Presbyterian Church, 1672-1980. Denton, Maryland: Baker Printing Co., 1981.

Williams, William Henry. The Garden of American Methodism: The Delmarva Peninsula, 1769-1820. Wilmington, Delaware: Scholarly Resources, Inc., 1984.

Woodson, Carter G. The History of the Negro Church. Washington, D.C.: Associated Publishers, 1992.


Society, Culture, Education

Baumgarten, Linda. What Clothes Reveal: The Language of Clothing in Colonial and Federal America. Williamsburg, VA: Colonial Williamsburg Foundation; 2002.

Behre, H. Edward. "Square Dancing on the Eastern Shore." Southern Folklore Quarterly 9 (1945): 213.

Burnard, Trevor. Creole Gentleman: The Maryland Elite, 1691-1776. London: Routledge, 2002.

Bushman, Richard L. The Refinement of America. Persons, Houses, Cities. New York, NY: Alfred A. Knopf, 1992.

Calvert, Karin. Children in the House: The Material Culture of Early Childhood, 1600-1900. Boston, MA: Northeastern University Press, 1992.

Carr, Lois Green, Philip Morgan, et. al., Colonial Chesapeake Society. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1988.

Carson, Cary, Ronald Hoffman, and Peter J. Albert, eds. Of Consuming Interests: The Style of Life in the Eighteenth Century. Charlottesville, VA: University Press of Virginia, 1994.

Crowley, John E. The Invention of Comfort: Sensibilities and Design in Early Modern Britain and Early America. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2001.

Demos, John. Past, Present, and Personal: The Family and the Life Course in American History. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 1986.

Garrett, Elisabeth Donaghy. At Home: The American Family, 1750-1870. New York, NY: Harry N. Abrams, 1990.

Gibbs, Patricia, Anne Schone, and George Hassell. "Redefining Family." In Becoming Americans: Our Struggle To Be Both Free and Equal, Cary Carson, ed. Williamsburg, VA: The Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, 2004.

Graham, Willie. "Chesapeake Colonial Family Kitchens." In The Cook's Room, Alan Davidson, ed. New York: Doubleday, 1991.

Graham, Willie. "Genteel Punches and Drunken Balls: The Creation of a Recognizable Tavern Form in the Early Chesapeake." The Bulletin of the Northumberland County Historical Society 6 (1990).

Greene, Jack P. Pursuits of Happiness: The Social Development of Early Modern British Colonies and the Formation of American Culture. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1988.

Greven, Philip. The Protestant Temperament: Patterns of Child-Rearing, Religious Experience, and the Self in Early America. New York, NY: Alfred A. Knopf, 1977.

Horn, James. "Adapting to a New World: A Comparative Study of Local Society in England and Maryland, 1650-1700." In Colonial Chesapeake Society, Carr, et. al. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1988.

Kulikoff, Allan. "The Colonial Chesapeake: Seedbed of Antebellum Southern Culture." Journal of Southern History XLV (1979): 12-540.

Kulikoff, Allan. "The Origins of Domestic Patriarchy among White Families." In Tobacco and Slaves: The Development of Southern Cultures in the Chesapeake, 1680-1800, Kulikoff, Allan. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1986.

Menard, Russel. "Death in the Chesapeake: Two Life Tables for Men in Early Colonial Maryland." Maryland Historical Magazine, LXIX (1974): 211-227.

Mintz, Steven and Susan Kellogg. Domestic Revolutions: A Social History of American Family Life. New York, NY: Free Press, 1988.

Powers, Emma L., and Pamela S. Pettengell. "Buying Respectability." In Becoming Americans: Our Struggle To Be Both Free and Equal, Cary Carson, ed. Williamsburg, VA: The Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, 2004.

Reaves, William A. "The Maryland Gentry and Social Mobility, 1637-1676." William and Mary Quarterly XIV (1951): 418-428.

Roth, Hal, Conversations in a Country Store: Reminiscing on Maryland's Eastern Shore. Vienna, MD: Nanticoke Books, 1995.

Shammas, Carole. "Anglo-American Household Government in Comparative Perspective." William and Mary Quarterly 52 (1995): 104-144.

Smith, Barbara Clark. After the Revolution: The Smithsonian History of Everyday Life in the Eighteenth Century. New York, NY: Pantheon Books, 1986.

Smith, Daniel Blake. Inside the Great House: Planter and Family Life in Eighteenth-Century Chesapeake Society. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1980.

Smith, Daniel Blake. "Mortality and Family in the Colonial Chesapeake." Interdisciplinary History VIII (1977): 410-418.

Stump, Brice Neal, Unforgettable Treasures: People, Places, and Culture of the Eastern Shore. Virginia Beach, VA: Donning Co. Publisher, 2000.

Tate, Thad W. and David L. Ammerman, eds. The Chesapeake in the Seventeenth Century: Essays on Anglo-American Society. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1979.

Wolf, Stephanie Grauman. As Various as Their Land: The Everyday Lives of Eighteenth Century Americans. New York, NY: Harper Collins, 1993.

Wood, Gordon S. "Patriarchal Dependence" and "Enlightened Paternalism." In The Radicalism of the American Revolution. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1991.


Women

Berkus, Catherine. Strangers and Pilgrims: Female Preaching in America, 1740-1845. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1998.

Brown, Kathleen M. Good Wives, Nasty Wenches, and Anxious Patriarchs: Gender, Race, and Power in Colonial Virginia. Chapel Hill, N.C.: University of North Carolina Press, 1996.

Carr, Lois, et. al. "The Planter's Wife: The Experience of White Women in the Seventeenth Century Maryland." William and Mary Quarterly 34 (1977), pp. 542-571.

Chappell, Helen. "Shorewomen." Chesapeake Bay Magazine 23 (1993): 30-34.

Gunderson, Joan R. To Be Useful to the World: Women in Revolutionary America, 1740-1790. New York, NY: Twayne Publishers, 1996.

Hoffman, Ronald, and Peter J. Albert, eds. Women in the Age of the American Revolution. Charlottesville, VA: University Press of Virginia, 1989.

Kierner, Cynthia A. Beyond the Household: Women's Place in the Early South, 1700-1835. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1998.

Meyers, Debra. Common Whores, Vertuous Women, and Loveing Wives: Free Will Christian Women in Colonial Maryland. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 2003.

Morgan, Jennifer L. Laboring Women: Reproduction and Gender in New World Slavery. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2004.

Morris, Anne F. and Jean B. Russo, eds. "Polly Tilghman's Plight: A True Tale of Romance and Reputation in the 18th Century." Maryland Historical Magazine 92 (1997) : 464-79.

Norton, Mary Beth. Founding Mothers and Fathers: Gendered Power and the Forming of American Society. New York, NY: Alfred A. Knopf, 1996.

Salmon, Marylynn. Women and the Law of Property in Early America. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1986.

Sherwood, Jack. "'Bad Girl' of the Wye River." Chesapeake Bay Magazine 25 (1995): 40-43, 64-65.

Spruill, Julia C. Women's Life and Work in the Southern Colonies. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1938.

Sturtz, Linda L. Within Her Power: Propertied Women in Colonial America. New York, NY: Routledge, 2002.

Thompson, Roger. Women in Stuart England and America: A Comparative Study. Boston, MA: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1974.



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