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About Delmarva

Timeline of events on Delmarva

Select a century:     15th - 17th   |  18th   |  19th   |  20th

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This timeline was compiled by Delmarva History Online from multiple sources, including the work of Rebecca Miller, G.V. Outten, Dr. Creston Long and the American Origins project.




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Delmarva Timeline: 15th - 17th Century


1498 - John Cabot sailed the Eastern Shore near present day Worcester County.

1524 - Giovanni de Verrazano sailed by the mouth of the Chesapeake Bay.

Circa-1575 - The native "Powhatan" begins building his empire. He inherits six tribes on the middle York River.

1597 - Powhatan conquers the Kecoughtans on the mouth of the James river. His Empire encompasses the area north to the Potomac, south to the "Great Dismal swamp", west to the river falls, and east to the ocean. With the exception of the Chesapeake and Chickahomino tribes, the majority of the tribes in this area are under Powhatan’s control.(Source.. After Columbus: Essays in the Ethnohistory of Colonial America- Rise and Fall of the Powhatan Empire, Oxford U. Press N.Y. 1988)

1580 – 1600 - All attempts by the English to establish colonies in America during the sixteenth century were unsuccessful. If successful, colonization would supply the English manufactures with raw material and provide a new market for manufactured goods. (Source- Genesis of the U.S. Alexander Brown, ed., Boston 1891 Vol I)

1602 - Bartholomew Gosnold and Bartholomew Grilbert sailed on a clandestine expedition from Falmouth, England and landed on the south east coast of New England in the summer of 1602. Sir Walter Raleigh had been granted exclusive rights of English trade in that part of the world. Since Gosnold and Grilbert did not have a licence for trading, this area may have been chosen for discretion. However, the goods brought back to England from this trip proved to be such a success, discretion was not possible. (Source- Narration of voyages along the New England coast, 1524-1624, Boston 1905) The success of this trip most likely provided some incentive for future interest.

1603 - Queen Elizabeth dies; James I (Stewart) ascends English throne acceleration of friction in England due to religious controversy between growing sect of Puritans and the conservatives who wished to maintain the Episcopal establishment and forms and rituals that the English church still retained from Roman Catholicism and the determination of the bourgeoisie and small landowners to resist taxation unless they could control foreign and domestic policies of the government.

1605 - Two groups of merchants petitioned the crown for a patent to Virginia (the territory extending from South Carolina to Maine and from "sea to sea", Latitude 34N to 45N, including Islands within 100 miles from the coast. The charter of Virginia was issued jointly to the two companies, the London and Plymouth, on April 10, 1606. Of the two company exploits, only the London Company proved to be relatively successful (probably due to capital provided).

1606 - In December the London Company sent three ships with 144 colonists from England.

1606, April 10 - Virginia granted by James I to the Virginia Company.

1607, May 13 - Settlers’ ship arrives at Jamestown.

1607, May 14 - Captain Christopher Newport and colonist (105 total) disembarked on a peninsula located 37. 12N 76.46W, and was named Jamestown. One of the colonists was John Smith. This was the first permanent English colony established in America. Soon after arrival the first attack of natives against Jamestown (by the Paspahegh tribe) occurred. Between May and September the colonist lived on sturgeon and sea crabs. In the fall the rivers "became covered with swans, geese, ducks and cranes" providing substance. Some of the natives provided additional stores through the winter. Other natives were hostile toward the colonist. (Source- Birmingham, England, 1884)

1608- Jan - The first supply ship arrives at Jamestown, only 38 of the 104 colonist are still alive.

1608, June 2 - Capt. John Smith commences exploration of Chesapeake Bay; Smith explored the southern tip of the Eastern Shore peninsula (Cape Charles). He continued north along the coast (bay side) searching for fit harbors in the various creeks and rivers.

1610, May 23 - James I issued patent for Virginia to the Virginia Company for lands in that part of America called Virginia "from Cape, or point comfort all along the seacoast to the Northward two hundred mile; and from the said Cape, or point comfort all along the sea-coast to the Southward 200 miles; all that space of Land lying from the sea-coast of the precinct aforesaid up into the Lands throughout from sea to sea, West and Northwest, and all the Islands lying within 100 miles along the coast of both seas of the precincts aforesaid.

1610 - Sir Thomas Gates and Sir George Sommers arrive with an additional 150 colonist to Virginia (Western Shore).

1612 - Powhatan begins to recede to the interior (12-15 miles) away from Jamestown.

1612 - Captain Samuel Argall and Sir Thomas Dale land on "Smith Island" on the southern tip of the Eastern Shore peninsula.

1613 - In May, Captain Argall explored the Eastern Shore peninsula. Comments are made as to the friendliness of the natives.

1614 - A Treaty with neighboring natives near Jamestown produces improved relations. This most likely helped provide an acceptable environment for expansion of both the western shore and the Eastern Shore peninsula.

1616 - The first settlement is established on the Eastern Shore peninsula called Dales-Gift (near Cape Charles). The first salt works is established on Smith Island.

1617 - Powhatan transfers the scepter of power to his younger brother, Opechancanough.

1618 - Powhatan dies. The Virginia company establishes new land policy to provide incentives to future investment and immigration. The company instituted "laudable form of government by majesty and just law for the happy guiding and governing of the people" in Virginia (first representative body in America). Hereafter men could hold land, trade independently and participate in government. They could be individuals within society rather than employees. The company also undertook the transport of women to be wives of the settlers. (Source- Abstract of Proceedings of the Virginia Company of London. 1619-1624, RA Brock,ed., Richmond, 1887 Vol I)

1619 - Va. Sets aside acreage for an Indian College to educate the natives in Christianity. In July, the first representative assembly in the colony’s repealed the marshal law of Sir Thomas Dale (tenure 1611-1616) and replaced it with statues based on English common law. (Collections of New York Historical Society, 2nd series, Vol III.NY, 1857)

1620 - There is a viable tobacco market in England and Chesapeake colonist are cultivating the crop to meet the demand. The Virginia Company increased efforts to attract laborers, indentured servants, and apprenticed workers. This included employment of apprenticed children in the colonies. Half of all immigrants to the colonies south of New England came under contract (Indenture). (Abstract of Proceedings of the Virginia Company of London. 1619-1624, RA Brock,ed., Richmond, 1887 Vol I)

1620 - George Calvert, first Lord Baltimore, planted "Avalon" in Newfoundland

1620s - John Westlock [of Somerset County 1670, aged 90] testified that he traded at Trading Branch "when wee came hither to Seate this Land…" (ARMD 86:12)

1620s - By the early 1620’s individuals began to acquire Land patents on the Eastern Shore peninsula. (Perry 1990)

Early 1620’s - Trade established between Virginia and New England

1621 - Va. Company investors send Sir Francis Wyatt to Jamestown as Governor. William Claiborne accompanies the Governor.

1622 - By 1622 land patents on the Eastern Shore peninsula centered on the Old Plantation Creek, Kings Creek, and Cherrystone Creek. Tobacco and corn are being grown. Eastern Shore Indians had proven to be friendly and non-threatening to the settlers. However, an Indian uprising, in March, on the western shore (350 settlers killed) damped dispersal of population for the next few years on both the western shore and the Eastern Shore peninsula.

1622 - Virginia settlers suffered massacre by Native Americans.

1622-1623 - English kill more Indians than since 1607.

1623, Oct 8 - Virginia Company surrendered their patent of Virginia to the Crown but not vacated upon the Record in the Office of the Rolls

1624 - English kill 800 Pamunkeys in two days. Va. Company is dissolved by the King, henceforth Virginia is a royal colony.

1624 - "A Muster of the Inhabitance of the Easterne Shore Over the Baye;" first record of a permanent English settlement on the peninsula.

1624, July 5 - James I stated his intention was to alter the Letters of Patent as to the form of Government in Virginia, but with the preservation of the interests of every Adventurer and Planter

1625, March 27 - James I dies, Charles I reigns. Charles I dissolves Parliament.

1625 - There are a total of six Landholders making a total of 51 settlers on the Eastern Shore peninsula. Patents range from 20-50 acres and occasionally 100 acres between 1625 and 1634.

1627 - Gov. of VA, Sir George Yeardley dies. Francis West appointed Governor.

1627-1628 - Additional land is patented on Va. Eastern Shore. A total of 336,000 lbs. of tobacco is shipped to England from the Chesapeake area.

1628, Sept 12 - Charles I renews to the planters of Virginia, under the great Seal of England, their lands and privileges formerly granted to them

1628, Sept 12 - Charles I signs Petition of Right, promising not to levy taxes without consent of Parliament, not to quarter soldiers in private homes, not to establish martial law in peacetime and not to order arbitrary imprisonment.

1626-1630 - During this time frame there are a total of 25 landholders on the Eastern Shore peninsula. Settlers are patenting land tracts relative to accessibility by water and location to adjacent landholders.

1629 - Charles 1 dissolves Parliament again (which does not reconvene until 1640) King began levying "ship money," relaxed restrictions on Catholics, interfered with Presbyterian religion in Scotland and the Scots revolted and overthrew the King’s bishops.

1629 - The settlers on the Eastern Shore were granted representation in the Virginia House of Burgesses.

1631- Aug - "Claiborne-Va.-Susquehannock-London Puritan Interest Group alliance" begin operation on Kent Island. Beaver pelts are the mainstay of this business alliance. This is the first Native/English business partnership.

1631, May - Kent Island settled by Virginians under William Claiborne; Maryland's first permanent English settlement.

1631 - Dutch settlers established a colony near Lewis, Delaware called Zwaanedael, meaning "Valley of Swans".

1632 - Accawmack (later Northampton) County, Virginia erected.

1632 - The Colonists no longer consider the Powhatans a threat.

1632 - The Calverts acquire a royal charter for Maryland. Charter claims land between Del. Bay and the Potomac River (sea to sea), not yet cultivated and planted. "All that parcel of Land lying in the part of America, from the sea on the East to the Bay of Chesapeake on the West, extending from Watkins point to Delaware Bay, and from Delaware Bay to Potomac River, and so along to Watkins point, together with the Islands thereunto belonging, and by the said patent called the Province of Maryland." This causes friction between Md. And Va. Colonist because the Md. Charter infringes on previously held Va. resources.

1632, April 15 - George, Lord Baltimore, died

1632, June 20 - Charles I charters Maryland to Cecil Calvert, second Lord Baltimore, conferring the palatine powers of a lord proprietor with annual recompense of two Indian arrows.

1633 - In an effort to maintain quality tobacco and stable market the Va. Assembly ordered colonists (planters) to send all of their tobacco to one of seven stores for quality inspection.

1633, Nov 22 - Leonard Calvert, brother of Cecilius, Lord Baltimore and Governor of Maryland, sailed with 128 emigrants to Maryland on the The Ark and The Dove.

1634, June - Accomack County population listed as 396.

1634, Feb/March - Leonard Calvert arrived at Old Point. St. Mary’s (Maryland) founded.

1634, Fall - Lord Baltimore ordered Leonard Calvert to seize Kent Island and arrest William Claiborne.

1635, April - Virginians and Marylanders fought over territorial rights to Kent Island; William Claiborne’s pinnace, the Long-tail, seized for trading in Maryland waters; settlers on both sides were killed in a naval battle near the island.

1635, May 10 - Vessel under command of Thomas Smith victorious at the Great Wighocomoco.

1631-1635 - A total of 37 landholders have settled on the Eastern Shore peninsula. Approximately 40 to 50 % acreage of the peninsula from "Occhannock Creek" (Belle Haven) south to Cape Charles have established land patents.

1635-1640 - Mr. William Cotton minister of Hungers Parish Church.

1636 - John West, governor of Virginia

1637 - There are eight men who are shipbuilders in Va. Eastern Shore. "Sloops" are the main transportation mode for the locality.

1637, Jan 25 - Randal Revell, cooper of St. George’s Hundred and John Hilliard of St. Mary’s Hundred, planter, in Maryland.

1638 - Swedish settlers arrived in present day New Castle County, Delaware.

1638 - John Savage and Tom Savage discuss the matter of maintaining fencing to keep livestock from destroying crops. Tom complained to John ... "John.. You shall keepe upp your hoggs as the rest of your neighbors doth, if they doth you shall".

1638 - William Claiborne dispossessed of his plantation in Kent Island and forced to England; Lord Baltimore refused trading by Virginians in the Bay, forcibly seizing ships and confiscating the goods

1638, Feb 25 - Randall Revell burgess for St. George’s Hundred, Maryland.

1638, March 14 - Thomas Morris given commission by Maryland to trade for corn with Indians and to export same out of Maryland.

1638, April 13 - Thomas Boyes given Maryland commission to arrest any persons, vessels or goods unlawfully trading with Indians by and or in water.

1638, Oct 4 - Proclamation by Virginia Governor that there be no trading with the Indians in Maryland "Northward from the River Wiconowe comonly knowne by the name of Anancock on the Eastern side of the Grand Bay of Chesapeake Without Lycence first obteyned from the Lo: Baltimore."

1636-1650 - Between 1636 and 1650 approximately 90% of the acreage of the Eastern Shore peninsula from Occhannock Creek south to Cape Charles has been patented. The success of the settlement of the Eastern Shore peninsula appears to have relied on the soil quality for crops, numerous waterways for better transportation and communication between land owners, and the satisfactory relations with the natives. The initial success of earlier settlers appears to have spurred the systematic, northerly settlement of the peninsula. This was especially true from 1635~1650. Landholders before 1636 37 1636--1640 72 1641--1645 87 1646--1650 82

1640 - Charles I reconvened Parliament (Long Parliament 1640-1660 [predominately Presbyterian]).

1641 - Accomack County population was 700.

1642-1646 – English Civil War, a conflict between the followers of the King or Cavaliers and the Roundheads, middle class supporters of Parliament.

1642 - Obedience Robbins and John Wilkins employ an itinerant millwright to erect a windmill to be used for grinding grain on certain days and sawing lumber on the other days.

1642, Sept 13 - Gov. Calvert declares that the "Sesquihanowes, Wicomeses, and Nantacoque indians, are enemies of this Province..." (Revoked as to Nanticokes 26 Jan 1642/3)

1642, Nov 25 - Taxables at St. Mary’s County include Randall Revell, John Langford (carpenter), Robert Kedger, Francis Gray, and Henry Bishop; at Kent County were John Abbott, William Cox, Thomas Butler, Andrew, George Crouch, Devoreux Godwin, Philip Conner, John Phillipps and William Porter

1643 - Accawmack County renamed Northampton County.

1644, April 18 - Powhatan uprising kills 5% of English population (western shore).

1645, Oct 10 - Francis Martin issued patent in Northampton County for 300 acres on Nassawadox Creek near land of Henry Pedenton and William Berriman.

1645, Dec 25 - Parliament, by its Committee for Foreign Plantations, drew up ordinance "for the settling of the Plantation of Maryland under the Command of Protestants."

1645 - Ambrose Dixon testified in Northampton County court that he and his mate built a boat for Randall Revell.

1646, Summer - Governor William Berkely and associates capture Opechancanough, signifying the end of the Powhatan Empire.

1646, June 10 - Henry Pedenton issued patent in Northampton County on Nassawadox Creek for 550 acres for transporting himself and ten others.

1646, Oct 11 - Michael Williams issued patent for 250 acres in Northampton County at Nassawadox Creek for transporting Lewis White, Thomas Wilson, Mary Pedenton, Sarah Williams.

1646, July 13 - William Whittington issued patent is Northampton County for 45 acres on Nassawadox Creek for transporting Susan his wife; Stephen Horsey and Nicholas Waddelow issued patent in Northampton County in Daws Neck on Nassawadox Creek for transporting Nehemiah Coventon and Edward Southern

1647 - License provided to Walter Williams to operate an Ordinary on the neck of land between Hungars and Nassawadox creeks, Va. Eastern Shore.

1647 - Governor Leonard Calvert dies; had named Thomas Green as successor.

1647, July 4 - Gov. Green commissions John Price to "goe out unto the Townes & Plantaons of the Indians of Nanticoke & Wicomico aforesd lying to the Eastward of this Province…And "destroying the sd Nations."

1648 - William Stone, resident of Northampton County, appointed Governor of Maryland by Lord Baltimore.

1649 - Va. Commissioners ordered that court convene exclusively at Williams’ Ordinary. Hundreds of boats, small and large are used on Va. Eastern Shore to ferry settlers and their goods from one holding to another. Waterways are the main stay of transportation.

1649 - Charles I beheaded by "Rump Parliament" (Independents) and Commonwealth of England established; Toleration Act passed.

1649 - Calvert stated adventurers or planters "nowe resident within this Province or within the Collony of Virginia that pretend any right to any lands" who had not had grants passed to them for lands due since Feb 1644 should register them as he "receives great prejudice in the non payments of such Rents" and they must take the Oath of Fidelity to His Lordship.

1649 Oct 5 - Randall "Herle" [Revell] issued 600 acre patent in Northampton County on Great Naswatock River from Chingandee Creek mouth into Arokoko Creek for transporting Anthony West and Ann his wife, John West and Katherine West.

1649, Oct 5 - Robert Parker issued 500 acre patent in Northampton County on north northwest upon Great Nassawadox River from Mansotonsick Creek mouth to Mattawonpin Creek for transporting Henry Hudson, John Spence and John Thomas.

1649, Oct 5 - Ralph Barlowe issued patent in Northampton County for 850 acres north-northwest upon Great Nassawadox River from Arokoko Creek mouth at Mansotansick Creek for transportation of Ann Parker, William Bosman, Bridget Richardson, Robert Parker; George Parker, John Miller, Elinor Odait, William Hopkin.

1650’s - Immigrants are reasonably well-to-do persons who are enticed primarily by tobacco profits.

1650, June 21 - John Brown issued 350 acre patent in Northampton County at Nassawadox in the Broad Creek bounded on west by Levin Denwood for transporting himself and wife, Robert Salisbury, William Heath and wife Amey and John Heath.

1650, Oct 24 - John Major issued 400 acre patent in Northampton County at south side Great Nassawdox Creek for transporting Stephen Barnes and John Major.

1650, Nov - At court at St. Mary’s Francis Martin a defendant in a dispute about a calf with Mark Blomefield who went to Accomack to receive it and Martin ordered to "transport her upp to the defendts nowe dwelling House in Maryland or some place neere thereabouts."

1650 - Eastern Shore of Virginia population above 1000.

1651, Sept 3 - "Bonny Prince Charles", son of Charles I, at head of Scottish Army invaded England and was overthrown at Worcester, then escaped to France.

1651, Oct - Navigation Acts passed by Rump Parliament aimed against the Dutch, allowing only English ships to trade with England.

1651, July 24 - Anthony Johnson issued 250 acre patent in Northampton County at Great Nassawadox Creek on a neck; Thomas Clifton issued 400 acre patent at Nassawadox Creek next to Henry Pedenton and William Berriman.

1651, Aug 26 - Letter of Cecil Calvert, Lord Baltimore, read at Assembly of Maryland urged for the "Prevention of any Controversies which may otherwise hereafter happen between the Inhabitants of Virginia…" and required "some English [be encouraged]... to take up such Land as shall be due to them... Especially on or near the Bounds of our said province on that Tract of Land which is Commonly Called the Eastern Shoar."

1651, Oct 12 - Ambrose Dixon and Stephen Horsey Jr. issued patent at Northampton (alias N Accomack) County for 600 acres facing the creek mouth and running up to a point separating from John Austin for transporting Richard Britton, Hugh Yeo, William Yeo and Mary Dixon.

1652 - Parliament passed "An Act Prohibiting trade with Barbadoes, Virginia, Bermudas and Antego" to reduce all the Plantations in the Bay of Chesapeake to their due obedience to the Parliament and the Commonwealth of England. Capt. Robert Dennis, Mr. Richard Bennet, Mr. Thomas Steg and Capt. William Claiborne appointed Commissioners for the reducement of Virginia and the inhabitants [included abolishing Book of Common Prayer] thereof.

1652 - War between England and Holland.

1652, March - William Claiborne and associates regain authority over Va. and former bounds and limits granted by the former Kings were restored.

1652 - Residents not willing to take an oath of allegiance to the Government without King or House of Lords area given a year in which to close out their business and leave the county. No evidence of anyone leaving the Eastern Shore.

1652, July 5 - Treaty with Susquehannocks ceded territory along both shores of the Chesapeake bay to the English (not Md.) Except Kent Island and Palmer Island which was considered Claiborne’s.

1652, March 11 - Northampton Oath to Commonwealth of England signed by future Somerset Countians Jeffery Minshall, William Waters, Levin Denwood, Alexander Maddox, John Johnson, Nehemiah Covington, Edward Southern, Ambrose Dixon, Richard Hill, Charles Ratcliffe, Randall Revell, Thomas Miller, Stephen Horsey.

1652, March 29 - Maryland was reduced and settled under the authority of the Commonwealth of England and governed by Commissioners.

1652, March 30 - Northampton Protest against taxation without representation signed by Stephen Chariton, Levin Denwood, John Nuthall, William Whittington, John Ellis and Stephen Horsey

1652, May 10 - John Johnson issued patent in Northampton County for 550 acres at Great Nassawadox Creek adjoining 200 acres granted to Anthony Johnson for transporting William Price, Law. Barnes and Mary Johnson.

1652, Aug 31 - Parliament orders hearing for the surrendering and settling of plantation of Virginia, with certain parchments concerning Maryland and the petition of the Inhabitants of Virginia to consider what patent is fit to be granted to Virginia inhabitants. "..itt is notoriously knowne that by his [Lord Baltimore) express directions his officers and the people there did adhere to the Interest of this Commonwealth, when all other English Plantations (except New England) declared against the Parliament… the Colony of Virginia, and others who adhered to the late kinge and his sonne."

1652, Nov 29 - Gov. William Stone issues declaration "to March against all or any Indians Inhabiting upon the Easterne Side of the Bay of Chesapeake to the Northward of the Southerly Bound of this Province on that Side the Bay being over against Wickocomoco Point and from thence in a direct line Eastward to the maine Ocean."

1653, Jan 3 - Lord Baltimore imposed an oath upon Marylanders to swear allegiance to him as Absolute Lord and Proprietary of Maryland and his laws, via his Governor William Stone, which if not signed, required forfeiture of lands for Lord Baltimore’s use and if taken, required to defend and maintain him in his Patent. [The laws included free exercise of religion, particularly to Roman Catholics, death for aiding runaway apprentices, loss of hand and life imprisonment for counterfeiting Lord Baltimore’s Seal, equal privileges with British and Irish for Dutch, French and Italians.]

1653, Jan 3 - Dissolution of Rump Parliament and Instrument of Parliament, the first written constitution, a Protectorate was established (constitutional monarchy) with Oliver Cromwell as Lord Protector for life.

1653, Mar 4 - William Coulborne issued 350 acre patent in Northampton County at head of Nassawadox Creek bounded on west by land of Nich: Waddelow for transporting Edward Sermoner [Sermon/Shearman].

1653, Mar 4 - Stephen Horsey a Burgess representing Northampton County.

1654 - Relations with natives on the Va. Eastern Shore deteriorate due to unfair dealings with natives. Assembly orders officials to allow the natives to sell their land only if the majority of the Indian "Towne" wished to sell.

1654 - Northampton Planters sell tobacco, butter, cheese, cured beef, hog meat, hides, wool, and livestock to England.

1653/4, March 18 - Gov. William Stone stated Capt. Thomas Adams, mariner lately purchased a plantation within Maryland and endeavored to procure trade between the English inhabitants of Maryland and those of the Swedish nation inhabiting in Delaware Bay and has permission to trade with any Indians on the Eastern Shore of the Bay of Chesapeake within this Province.

1654, June 10 - Alexander Madocks and James Jones issued 516 acre patent in Northampton County at head of Nassawadox Creek for transporting John Devorax, William Giles and Jon Roberts.

1654, July 15 - Richard Bennett and William Claiborne, Parliament’s Commissioners under the Commonwealth of England, published a declaration stating that Maryland was not governed according to the laws of England, contrary to the Platform of Government of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland.

1654, July 20 - Governor William Stone of Maryland resigns, in the presence of Thomas Gerrard, Thomas Hatton and Edmund Scarburgh.

1655 - The majority of the mainland on the Eastern Shore of Va. is patented. Nineteen commissioners held courts, each monthly with multiple sittings in eleven months on Va. Eastern Shore.

1655 - Delaware Swedes yielded to Dutch rule.

1655, March 7 - Andiaman and other Indians of Occancocke complained in Northampton Court that Randall Revell, Mr. Hugh Yeo and John Jenkins, now seated upon the Indians’ land, were not paid for the land, as well as Mr. Thomas Teackle, Richard Hill and Toby Norton.

1655, March 20 - Battle of Severn- Lord Baltimore’s forces try to retake control of Maryland government.

1655, March 20 - Richard Bundick (in 1670) stated that the Trading Branch he knew was the same branch Mr. Revell landed at on the left hand going up the branch and then bought the land he now has.

1656, June 20 - Restatement of Lord Baltimore’s patent "all that part of a Peninsula, lying in the parts of America between the Ocean o the East and the Bay of Chesapeake on the west, and divided from the other part thereof, by a right Line drawn from the Promontory of Cape of Land called Watkins Point (situate in the foresaid Bay near the River of Wighio) on the west unto the main Ocean on the East; and between that bound on the south unto that part of Delaware Bay on the north which lieth under the 40th degree of Northerly Lat from the equioctiall, where New England ends; ... extending south to Cinquack near mouth of Pattacomeck River and thence by a straight line to the foresaid promontory and place called Watkins Point unto the Promontory called Cape Charles."

1657 - Henry Harper (per 1670 testimony) met with a vessel from Rappahanock and went to Manokin River to the Indian Town on Trading Branch.

1657 - Randall Revell a Burgess from Northampton County.

1657 - Cromwell restored the Chesapeake colonies back to the Calverts (Calvert was consider more religiously tolerant that the puritan leaders of Va.). Lord Baltimore’s claims in the Chesapeake were ratified by treaty between Md. And Va.

1658 - Oliver Cromwell dies.

1658 - First permanent Maryland settlement is established on the Eastern Shore (General Choptank area).

1659, July 23 - Maryland stated "severall vagabonds & Idle persons knowne by the name of Quakers that have presumed to com into this Province as well diswading the People from Complying with the Military discipline... as also from giving testimony or being Jurors... [shall] forthwith cause them to be apprehended & whipped from Constable to Constable until they be sent out of the Province."

1659, Aug 28 - Edmund Scarburgh from Occahannock to Maryland Governor stating intent "to settle a Garrison on the Sea Side... to the head of Wiccocommoko River on the Eastern Shore, the Enemy is harder to find then Conquer" and stats he thinks the convenient place to find them is the "head of Wiccocomoko River, and for the present it may be best onely to Designe watt against the Assateges and to awe the Nanticokes and Wiccocomico’s with Confederats"

1660, May 8 - Charles II restored to the English throne, ruling until 1685; Act of Uniformity: Parliament deprived Presbyterians of their offices

1660, July 31 - Sir William Berkely, royal Governor of Virginia, appointed by Charles II.

1661, Nov 6 - Gov. Philip Calvert appointed Col. Edmund Scarburgh, Randoll Revell and John Elzey, Gent. or any two of them being within this Province to grant warrants for land upon the Eastern shoare of this Province in any parte belowe Choptank River"

1661/2, Jan 9 - John Jenkins "whoe raysed the mutiny in Charles County in February last… is retourn’d againe into this Province and Lurketh aboute the Wiccocomaco River" and orderd to be apprehended."

1661 - Nov. 16 - Gov. Philip Calvert issued a proclamation stating Va. settlers should be granted lands "upon the Eastern Shore of the providence in any part below the Choptank River"

1661 (late) - Colonist are acquiring land on the Eastern Shore between the Va. and northern Md. settlements. Settlements are established at Annamessick and Manokin (north-west of Pocomoke sound).

1662, Feb 4 - Petition of diverse persons well affected to this Province now or late inhabitants of Northampton County, otherwise called Accomack in Virginia who are desirous to transplant themselves and families into Maryland. John Elzey, Randall Revell and Stephen Horsey appointed to grant warrants for land upon the Eastern Shore in any part below Choptank River per conditions of plantation 22 September 1658.

1662, April 9 - John Elzey testifies: That being at Wicomico on the Eastern Shore certain of the great men of that town came to him and said Mr. John Nuttall had told them that Elzey and others "that came thether to take upp land did belong to the County of Accomack, and that wee weare not heere to inhabit, for that land did belonge to the Province of Maryland, and if wee weare suffered to seate there amongst them, wee would serve them as wee have don our neighbour Indians at Accomack."

1662, April 9 - Commission granted to William Thorne to command a company of foot to be levied at Manokin and to be captain at Manokin and Anamesick and that a commission be granted to Randall Revell, John Elzey and William Thorne to hear any causes to the valued of 2000 pounds of tobacco and to select a sheriff.

1662, May 15 - At council held at Portoback "Came Henry Hudson Owner of the Barcke Expedition of Piscatoway in New England" of which Hudson was sole owner and the barque was seized for shipping tobacco contrary to the Act of Navigation.

1662, May 20 - Randall Revell represented the "State of the plantation seated at Manokin" and stated there were seated fifty tithable persons at Manokin and Anamessicks "a place distant som fower miles from Monokin" and an agreement had been made with the neighbor Indians, the Emperor of Nanticoke that the Emperor and his Indians were to have for every plantation six match coates to be paid by them that seated such plantations.

1662, June 10 - Dr. George Hack given a license to "transporte 20 barrells of Come out of this [Maryland] Province."

1662, Aug 23 - Edward Shearman and John Markham, who lived at Manokin, testified that Mr. Randall Revell seized corn in the sloop owned by Capt. John Savage as Savage was trading with the Indians without license from the Lord Proprietor and Markham brought the boats to Revell’s landing at Manokin.

1662/3, Feb 20 - Mr. John Elzey and Stephen Horsey were continued as commissioners "on the part of the Easterne shoare newly seated, & adjoining to Virginia… That Randall Revell bee out." William Thorne and Capt. John Odber to be joined to Elzey and Horsey on the commission.

1662/3, March - John Elzey wrote to Henry Sewell [Secretary of Maryland Province] concerning Col. Edmund Scarborough’s and Randall RevelI’s claim to "this place," stating that Scarborough arrested him "att his Maties suite" when Elzey was in Accomack on business, further stating "Wee lye betweene Sylla & Charibdis, not knowing how to gett out of this Labarith." Scarborough had made demand of Elzey to "Right of Land in & uppon the place where hee lyeth, & subjection to his Maties Governt being in a place now called Manokin, formerly in Smiths Map Wicocomoco River."

1663, Oct 10 - Col. Edmund Scarburgh of Virginia terrorized the people of Manokin and Annamessex Hundreds.

1658-1663 - Land patents are sold to the "wealthy immigrants & western shore adventures" on speculation. Typical Talbot and Kent Eastern Shore landholder is described as owning 250 acres, raising livestock, cultivating corn and supplementing income by growing tobacco.

1663 - Virginia becomes conscious of her boundaries and realizes potential problems with boundary between Maryland and the newly-formed Accomack County; Territory disputes between Va. and Md. Boundary begin.

1663 - Quakers living in Annemessex, who were loyal to Lord Baltimore, refused to return to Virginia rule as ordered by Edmund Scarborough.

1664, March 26 - Gov. Charles Calvert appointed William Coleburne lieutenant under Capt William Thorne of the foot company to be raised between Choptanck River and a line drawne East into the Ocean from Watkins Point being the North point of the Bay into which the River Wighco formerly called Wighcocomoco afterwards Pocomoke and now Wighcocomoco again doth fall, to suppress "resistance of all Enemies, Suppression of all mutanies insolency’s & Rebellions whatsoever."

1664, May 26 - Gov. Charles Calvert appointed Stephen Horsey, Capt. William Thorne and William Bosman to grant warrants to "now or late inhabitants of Northton County otherwise called Accomack in Virginia."

1664, Jun 3 - Gov. Charles Calved acknowledges "differences between the said Governmts touch the Antient & knowne bound between them [MD&VA] on the Easterne Shore," stating the Sir William Berkeley, Governor of Virginia appointed Col. Edmund Scarburgh, Mr. John Cattlett and Mr. Richard Lawrence to meet with the deputies of Maryland’s government to determine where Watkins point was and that Col. Scarburgh "did about the tenth of October last in an hostile manner enter many miles into this province to the Terror of the people at Monoakin & Anamessecks, beating, abusing & imprisoning the people there by him long before seated by vertue of a Comission from this governmt directed. . ." and attempted to mark a tree upon a point of land above 30 miles north of Watkins Point.

1664, Jun 7 - Report to council of Maryland declares "that the vast Quantities of Tobaccos Yearly made in Virginia and Maryland hath soe glutted all Markets both att home and abroad that it does now very little more than pay his Maties Customs.. "and that "the Comoditie [tobacco] hath formerly beene as very a Drugg as now.. ." requesting "that Unhappie Weede to Virginia and Maryland" and to restrict the import to London from other English settlements.

1665 - English Five Miles Act: Parliament decreed that dissenting clergymen must not come within five miles of their old churches.

1665 - Delaware settlers yielded to English rule, now placed under the control of Charles II's brother James, the Duke of York.

1665, Aug 27 - Play "The Bear and the Cub" performed with difficulty in Accomack. This was the last dramatic presentation on the Eastern Shore during the colonial period.

1665, Aug 28 - Mr. Stephen Horsey and Cat. William Thorne to continue as Justices of the Peace on the Eastern Shore, with the addition to six more: George Johnson, William Stephens, John White, John Winder, James Jones, Henry Boston.

1666, July 12 - Articles of Agreement concerning the cessation in Virginia and Maryland of "sowing, setting, planting or any waies tending any tobacco in the yeare 1667" at James City, with Maj. Gen. Richard Bennett, Capt. Joseph Bridger, Mr. Thomas Ballard, gent, in attendance.

1666, Aug 22 - Somerset County established under justices Stephen Horsey, William Stevens, William Thorne, James Jones, John Winder, Henry Boston, George Johnson and John White, Edmond Beachampe as clerk and keeper of records of proceedings; Stephen Horsey as sheriff, who will "take a list of all the tythable persons in the said County of Somersett" and report at the Provincial court on 16 October. The county bounded on south with a line drawn from Watkins Point being the north point of the bay into which the River Wighco formerly called Wigheocomoco afterwards Pocomoke and now Wighcocomoco to the Ocean on the East, Nanticoke River on the North and the Sound of Chesapeake Bay on the West to honor sister Mary Somerset.

1667, Summer - An outbreak of smallpox hits the Eastern Shore. Disease thought to have been brought by a sailor whose illness went undiagnosed.

1668 - Maryland and Virginia worked out the boundary between the two colonies on the Eastern Shore.

1669 - Dorchester County, Maryland erected.

1670 - Md. Eastern Shore "Free men" who own farms begin to acquire labors (indentured servants) to clear additional acreage to increase tobacco production (Talbot & Kent counties). Between 1670-1689 indentured servants are mainstay for labor on the Eastern Shore of Md.

1671, Nov 16 - King of Manokin brought suit against Thomas Poole, James Davis, Richard Davis and William Davis.

1672 - Charles II issued Declaration of Indulgence, granting religious liberty to both Roman Catholics and dissenters; repealed 1673.

1673 - Augustine Herrman's map, Virginia and Maryland, published.

1673 - Shore has two roads over most of the area from Cape Charles to the Maryland line.

1674 - King Charles granted all of Virginia except the Northern Neck to two of his favorite noblemen who were to collect the quitrent for 31 years. They were to receive all rents- one shilling for each 50 acres after seven years of ownership, not only in the future but those which had gone unpaid since 1669.

1675 - Va. and Md. (Western shore) forces attack remnants of Susquehannock natives; war continues through 1677.

1676, Nov - Survey of "Batchellor’s Lot" (200 ac. Tract of land near Newark Md.) is completed for John Smock.

1676, June - Northampton Grievances; Bacon’s Rebellion.

1677 - After 1677 no Indian group native to the Chesapeake region had population, power, or the products to influence key events of the Chesapeake area again.

1677, Feb 17 - Capt. Thomas Walker, high sheriff of Somerset County, with the deposition of William Keene, reported a "barberous murder" commited by Indians at the house of David Williams, killing the whole family.

1680 - Tobacco shipments exceed 1,000,000 lbs from the Chesapeake area. Approximately 300 slaves in Talbot and Kent counties.

1681 - King Charles II granted a charter to William Penn; Penn established the colony of Pennsylvania.

1683 - Francis Makemie arrived on the peninsula; rise of American Presbyterianism.

1683, May - Tract of 200 acres called "Conveniency", was surveyed for Col. William Stevens (sea board side of head of Assateague).

1684, May 12 - "Edward Stevens, of Pocomoke, in the county of Somerset, Planter" completed his Will (probated Sept. 29, 1715) devising 1/3 of tract to his wife Ruth, 1/3 to testator estate and 700 acre tract called "Blakes Hope" to be equally divided between his sons -William Stevens and John Stevens.

1685, Jan. 20 - Jacob Waring sold a tract of 130 acres (Turner’s Purchase) in Somerset County to Thomas Wilson for 10,000 lbs. of tobacco. Thomas Wilson was the pastor of Manokin Presbyterian Church of Princess Anne from 1685 until after 1700.

1685 - Charles II dies; James II (Catholic) ascends English throne

1686 - Snow Hill established near headwaters of Pocomoke River.

1688 - William, Prince of Orange (grandson of Charles I) and his wife Mary (daughter of James II) ascend the English throne, ruling until 1694. James II flees to France.

1689 - King Williams war begins; war demands of men curtails the flow of indentured servants to the area. Planters are forced to turn to the more expensive slave labor.

1689 - The "Glorious Revolution" established supremacy of Parliament in England. The Bill of Rights enacted, which protected Anglican Church and the powers of parliament and religious toleration for dissenters.

1691 - First recorded evidence of Rehobeth church (Rehobeth, Md.)

1692 - William and Mary removed proprietorship of Maryland from Charles Calvert.

1692 - Anglican Parishes established in Maryland.

1695 - Edward Stevens was named by court proceedings to be ferryman of the Pocomoke River (called keeper of Pocomoke Ferry in 1697). Course of the ferry was from Edward Stevens farm on "Blakes Hope" tract on the north (called west) side of the Pocomoke River to a landing on the south side of the river (near east end of present day Pocomoke City).

1699 - Ship building is a thriving industry on the Eastern Shore. Four areas in Md. and several in Va. are constructing ships from 20 ton sloops to 350 ton ships. Corn, tobacco being exported from Va. and Md.

1700 - Estimated population of America is 100k in Va., 100k in middle colonies, 70k in New England, and 35k in the Caribbean. Ninety percent are English birth or decent. After 1700 most immigrants are non-English.


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